Nursing Process and Strategic Planning

NursingProcess and Strategic Planning

Thecontemporary health sector, particularly nursing, has incorporated agoal-oriented process which is similar to the traditional strategicplanning process. Nurses use informatics as a tool and resource forachieving the related objectives. Information has become a centralaspect of goal attainment in the medical sector. Therefore, it isimperative for nurses to understand how to manage informationeffectively to achieve the desired results. The use of information isan indication of the fact that the nursing process is analogous tostrategic planning. Therefore, the focus of this paper is to compareNursing Process to Strategic Planning Process within the context ofthe roles of nurses.



Strategicplanning process and the nursing process are both goal-oriented(Hebda &amp Czar, 2013). The strategic planning process can beperceived within the context of management tool because it helpsorganizations set objectives, focus resources towards the attainmentof the set goals, establish assessment procedures and performanceindices, and evaluate the entire process to ensure that theorganization is headed towards the right direction. It brings peopletogether for a common cause. When compared to one another, nursingprocess is similar to strategic process because it also aims atproviding quality care to patients (Sare &amp Ogilvie, 2010).Therefore, it can also be perceived as a tool for managing theactivities and contributions of nurses to ensure that they culminateat providing quality care to patients.

Strategicplanning process and the nursing process are both goal-oriented andalso employ similar steps towards attaining objectives. For instance,the steps taken in the strategic planning process to achieve theintended goal includes the assessment of current organizationalinternal and external environment, formation of a strategy formeeting the stated goal, implementation of the plan, and evaluationof the process to determine whether the objective and goals wereachieved. Nursing process entails steps such as the assessment ofpatients` medical condition and other information, diagnosis of thepatients` situations, planning for outcomes, implementation of thetreatment and care strategy, and evaluation of the process andresults to determine whether the goals and objectives of thetreatment process were achieved (Hebda &amp Czar, 2013). From thisanalysis, it is apparent that both strategic planning and nursingprocess begins from identification of a particular problem, thenformulating a strategy that will be relevant towards solving theproblem.

Moreover, both strategic planning process and nursing process entailsa team of people. Strategic planning requires a team of individualssince organizations are systems with various departments. Eachdepartment must be represented because their activities will affectthe outcome of the plan (Marriner, 2012). Correspondingly, treatmentprocess requires a team of medical professionals to ensure that thedecisions made are right considering the condition of the patients.In other words, both methods aim at facilitating teamwork, andfocusing the energy of workers towards the attainment of specificgoals and objectives within respective organizations.


The main difference between strategic planning and nursing process isthat strategic planning is broad while the nursing process isspecific. Strategic planning can be applied at any organizationallevel. It can also be implemented to achieve any organizationalobjective. On the other hand, nursing process is specifically forensuring that the nursing services delivered to patients are of highquality (Hebda &amp Czar, 2013). Another difference is thatstrategic planning is a tool, which can be applied whenever anorganization needs to achieve a particular objective. On the otherhand, nursing process is an inherent element of the larger medicalhealth process. Furthermore, the nursing process was designed toguide the activities of nurses towards delivering high-qualityhealthcare services to patients. Therefore, strategic planningincludes everyone within a given organization because they have apart to play in the process of attaining organizational goals andobjectives.


The American Nurses Association is cognizant of the fact thatutilization of informatics is a specialty. They also recognize thatinformatics can be used as a tool and resource to achieve the relatedobjectives of the nursing process. Information is essential in thenursing process since the entire process begins with an accuratecollection of information to be used for diagnosis and treatment ofpatients` conditions. Thus, the most significant role of nurses is togather correctly, store, and retrieve information in ways that wouldfacilitate the delivery of high-quality services to patients. Nurseshave the obligation of collaboratively planning for nursing processesand ensuring that the related goals and objectives are achieved usinginformatics.


This paper has compared nursing process to strategic planningprocess. It has determined that the two management tools sharesignificant elements, and differ in some areas. For instance, bothprocesses are goal-oriented and rely on various steps to achieve theobjectives. On the other hand, they differ when it comes toapplication. The nursing process has a specific goal, while strategicplanning can be modeled to suit any target. The paper has alsodiscussed that the role of nurses in both processes involvesplanning. It also established that nurses could use informaticsefficiently to achieve the related objectives of the nursing processand strategic planning.


Hebda,T., &amp Czar, P. (2013). Handbookof informatics for nurses &amp healthcare professionals.Boston: Pearson.

Marriner-Tomey,A. (2012).&nbspGuideto nursing management and leadership.St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier.

Sare,M. V., &amp Ogilvie, L. A. (2010).&nbspStrategicplanning for nurses: Change management in health care.Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Child Welfare



Child welfare is an issue of critical significance because of therole it plays in ensuring the safety of children. The services aredesigned in such a way that support is guaranteed for children whoneed care. Children have found themselves in situations where theyare abused and neglected. Because of the vulnerable nature ofchildren, any form of maltreatment has a detrimental effect on theiroverall welfare. Child welfare agencies have been introduced toprotect children against the problems they are likely to encounter(Pecora, Whittaker, Maluccio, &amp Barth, 2012).

Leadership perspectives are the ability to influence actions ofindividuals positively. It differs from advocacy perspectives invarious ways. Leadership perspective entails persuading others topursue a particular course. Advocacy perspective involves providingsupport to a group of people or individuals to help them expresstheir concerns. Secondly, leadership is about developing a sharedvision to be achieved by the rest of the team. Advocacy focuses onenhancing the ability of the particular individual or group of peopleto realize a vision that has been set. Finally, leadershipacknowledges the need to give direction toward the realization of agiven goal while actively supports measures toward the achievement ofthe objective that has been set (Rockhill, Furrer, &amp Duong,2015).

The highlighted differences have a significant impact on actions andpotential consequences on child welfare. Leadership would entailensuring that efforts directed toward the achievement of objectivesof bear fruits. Advocacy, on the other hand, wouldrequire enacting support structures to facilitate the realization ofgoals set by Child welfare services. The effects of such measureswould be ensuring that children are protected from any abuse andneglect (Shireman, 2015). For example, if child welfare servicesfocus on identifying children who have been neglected, it would bepossible to allocate them with much ease through proper leadershipand advocacy actions.


Pecora, P. J., Whittaker, J. K., Maluccio, A. N., &amp Barth, R. P.(2012). The child welfare challenge: Policy, practice, andresearch. AldineTransaction.

Rockhill, A., Furrer, C. J., &amp Duong, T. M. (2015). PeerMentoring in : A Motivational Framework. Childwelfare, 94(5), 125-144.

Shireman, J. F. (2015). Critical issues in child welfare.Columbia University Press.

Understanding the Global World and How to succeed in it

Insert Surname 1

Understandingthe Global World and How to succeed in it

The international market provides various business opportunities thatorganizations in the world can explore. However, as they plan onexploring the global world, they need to focus on elements that shallensure the success of their ventures. The paper seeks to investigateJapan to understand the global world and how to succeed in it. Itshall begin by discussing the trend of globalization in Japan byfocusing on Softbank’s acquisition of Sprint Corporation andSuntory’s purchase of Jim Beam. It shall then explain theimportance of global human resources in Japan and interpret the ideaof a global mindset. It shall conclude by identifying the qualitiesthat are considered essential to work in an internationalenvironment.

An analysis of the globalization trend in Japan indicates that thecountry is committed to exploring the global market. For instance,after Japan’s Softbank Corporation completed its acquisition ofSprint Corporation in 2013, it later bought additional shares in2015, which increased its percentage of ownership (Ajmera &ampShumaker, n. p). The bank’s investment decision indicates thatJapan is interested in pursuing globalization because Sprint’sperformance in the economy had made the institution lose confidence.However, its promotions and offers had resulted in increasedcustomers that imply that its performance is likely to improve.Besides, by focusing on Suntory’s acquisition of Jim Beam, it isevident that Japan is focused on diversification in the internationalmarket. Suntory planned on running the acquired company from Chicagowhere its headquarters are based as well as working with theorganization’s employees in promoting the growth of the business(Suntory Holdings Ltd, n. p). Integrating the local employeessupports globalization as it allows the management to understandlocal cultures and business practices that they may incorporate intothe management of its corporation.

The globalization trend in Japan has been increasing with local firmsdeveloping into international organizations and establishing globalnetworks. The trend in Japan requires managers to consider globalhuman resource management because it allows them properly to handlethe increased diversity in the workforce and sensitive culturalpractices among employees (Sheehan &amp Sparrow, 2399). Humanresource management is also essential in achieving excellentperformance because it addresses the needs of the employees who canmeet the demands of the target market.

The idea of a global mindset that is based on knowledge,communication, and attitude implies that companies in Japan that arejoining the international market need to conduct research on theglobal world. The investigation allows them to have adequateknowledge that they can apply in making informed decisions andplanning. Besides, the firms need to set up an efficientcommunication system since the network and stakeholders are expectedto broaden. Finally, the Japanese organizations need to join theglobal market with a positive attitude because they are likely toencounter stiff challenges such as increased competition, cultureshock, increased risks that may discourage them.

When working in an international environment, one is required to behighly flexible to accommodate any changes they encounter. Anindividual should also be open-minded to new approaches and solutionsto problems. A person also needs to be patient, ready to listen, andcurious as it enables them to learn and appreciate the varioussituations one encounters in the new environment (Asakawa, 1165).

Work Cited

Ajmera, Ankit, and Shumaker Lisa. “ SoftBank acquires more sharesin Sprint for about $87 million.” Reuters Business News 12.8(2015). Retrieved from

Asakawa, Kazuhiro, et al. &quotInternationalization in Japan`sService Industries.&quot Asia Pacific Journal of Management30.4 (2013): 1155-1168.

Sheehan, Maura, and Paul Sparrow. &quotIntroduction: Global HumanResource Management And Economic Change: A Multiple Level Of AnalysisResearch Agenda.&quot International Journal of Human ResourceManagement 23.12 (2012): 2393-2403.

Suntory Holdings Ltd. “Suntory Holdings to acquire Beam in $16Billion Transaction.” Online News 13.1 (2014): No.11942.Retrieved from

Psychology discussions


Author’s name


Since the immigrantpopulation has 70% of adults with English fluency problems, I wouldrecommend the introduction of multilingual staff. Thirty percent ofthe immigrant population has English literacy and a culturalbackground of their original homes. Therefore, hiring them at themental health center would be helpful, even if it is on part timebasis. This move helps in swiftcommunication between the health workers and the clients who do notspeak English. I would also propose the introduction of communityEnglish Language Development programs (ELD) to assist the immigrantadults in learning English. Some of the training recommendationsinclude cultural competency. This method helps health workers tounderstand and appreciate cultural diversities inrelation tohealthcare. It should include self-evaluation formats for culturalcompetency. Another priority recommendation is the adoption of thetransculturalapproach of mental health. It considers the society as a client andnot an individual, therefore promoting gross management of socialproblems.

Facilitating anintergroup workrelations between the staff at the health center relies upon manyfactors. With my knowledge of social dynamics, I would fostercross-occupational and cross-organizational programs that aid insharing quality agenda information. This target can beachieved byusing the Crew Resource Management (CRM) cross-discipline team (&quotThemulticultural workplace: interactive acculturation and intergrouprelations: Journal of Managerial Psychology: Vol 25, No 5&quot,2016). Anotherstrategy is the improvement of social identities and promotion ofacquiring another identity related to healthcare provision. The moveimproves the integration of cultural differences among staff topromote objective results. I would also promotestaff initiatives and involvement inthe main issues ofthe society. For instance, I will set up goals that arecompared withother mental health centers. Thisis based on theInteractive Acculturation Model (IAM) in the multiculturalworkplace.

I recommend the useof DSM-V for patients with limited English proficiency because thediagnostic criterion for the mental disorders relies on the signs andsymptoms. Thismeans that theway adisorderpresents in all individuals is the same, not discriminating aproficient English speaker and the illiterateone. Through the use of translators and other communication modeslike sign language, a clinician can still make a diagnosis using theDSM-V. For instance, in schizophrenia, one may have delusions andhallucinations, and the two are standard in all populations, as falsebeliefsand sensations.

Evaluation of staffcompetence in working with the populationwill be a priority. I will use a rating scale that is universal andeffective.I will identify the essentialcompetenciesneeded, the expectations of specific positions and eventually engagethe workers in service delivery so that I can know what they know. Iwill also consider the quality of their output. It can be achievedthrough the number of cases successfully managed, community responseand statistical data from research organizations. I can also carryout personal observations. Community diagnosis is also paramount indetermining the worker competencies. It can be done throughidentification of mental cases and comparing them with previous data.The language and cultural competenciesalso determinetheir effectiveness in service delivery.

Discussion 2

The mental health disorderselected is Bipolar mood disorder, inclusive of bipolar I and II.Format 1:

Figure1: Bipolar mood disorder prevalence (&quotNIMH» Bipolar Disorder among Adults&quot, 2016)

Format 2:


2.6% of the total USpopulation is affected with bipolar mood disorder. Of the 2.6%, 87%are considered to be severe cases.


It is common in all the malesand females therefore it has no specificgender rates. It is also likely to affect children of parents withthe disorder. When only one parent has the disorder, every child hasa 15-30 % chance of developing the disorder,and if both parents have it, the chances increase to 50-85%.

Treatment options

For yearly healthcare use,48.8% of people with the disorder are receiving treatment. 38.8% ofthose on treatment are receiving an adequate one. For any otherservice use, 55.5% are receiving attention. 39.2% of them arereceiving the adequateone for the disorder&nbsp(&quotBipolarDisorder Statistics – Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance&quot,2016).

Figure 2: Treatment andservices (&quotBipolar Disorder Statistics – Depression and BipolarSupport Alliance&quot, 2016)


APAGuidelines for Providers of Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, andCulturally Diverse Populations.(2016).&nbsp 2 July 2016, from

BipolarDisorder Statistics – Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance.(2016).& 2 July 2016, from

NIMH »Bipolar Disorder Among Adults.(2016).& 2 July 2016, from

Themulticultural workplace: interactive acculturation and intergrouprelations: Journal of Managerial Psychology: Vol 25, No 5.(2016).&nbspJournalOf Managerial Psychology.Retrievedfrom

Literary Analysis


Thetitle of the story chosen is “Who’s Afraid” is the title of thefiction story written by Whitty Joshua in the year 2012. The storytalks of a campus girl called Lexie who was being afraid of beingswallowed by a Night Butcher on her way home. Lexie has left thecampus late in the evening and started walking alone in an isolateddark footpath towards her area of residence. Upon arrival at herapartment, she was exhausted and went straight to her room. She hadforgotten to ensure that her door bolt was tightly closed. She aroseat 3.Am and realized that she forgot to close the door (Whitty,pp.1-2).

Lexiewas afraid that somebody might have stormed into her house becausethe door was wide open. She started shivering and feeling like shecould collapse. A slight sweat of fear started running down her backshe unzipped her dress to clear the sweat. The more she tried toimagine that she had left the door opened the more confused shebecome. In that state of confusion, she tried to reach her phone sothat she could call her mother. Upon holding the phone, she gatheredsome courage not to call and handle the issues alone. The fear couldnot go away because she found out that there were some frames of theblack line in her entrance door which acted as proof that there wasan intruder in the house. She became more afraid and started toimagine that she could become a victim of murder any time (Whitty,pp.1-2). Theessay focuses on offering a literary analysis of a fiction shortstory titled “Who’s Afraid.”

Literaryanalysis of a fiction short story titled “Who’s Afraid.”

Propercharacters development is the heart of the story. Characters act asdeterminants of whether the story will be interesting or not. TheAuthor of the short story who’s Afraid has used the direct methodin developing his character. The main charter in the story is Lexie,a young campus lady who has been portrayed as a coward. She feareddarkness and being alone she also fears things that do not exist.For example, she feared being stabbed with a knife by the NightButcher. Her cowardice character has been portrayed throughout thestory up to the point where she started realizing that she needs tobe courageous to survive alone (Whitty, p.2).

Othercharacters involved in the story are the Night Butcher and Lexiemother. The butcher has been portrayed as a supernatural creaturethat can storm in any dark place to commit murder. The author usedthe Night Butcher to develop the story and show the magnitude of feartowards the main characters. Also, Lexie mother is a minor characterin the story. Lexie mother was used in the story to bring out theelement of love and care. She was the source of strength to herdaughter Lexie. For example, when Lexie suspected that the NightButcher could have stormed in the house she tried to call her forhelp. The mother has been used in the story to bring out vividunderstanding of the main characters. She has also been included inthe story to show that despite being a caring mother she wanted tobring her daughter as an independent and strong woman. For example,Lexie mother withdraws all the money and leave her daughter with onlyenough funds for her transport (Whitty, pp.2-3).

Themoral implication of the character is that the story focuses onbringing out the best results about the character in the story. Inmost cases, the moral implications of a character influence theirdecision and the way they make decisions in different situations. Themain character, Lexie was displayed as a coward. However after goingthrough challenging and traumatizing experience at night in herapartment, she was molded and become a courageous woman. Besides, shestated knowing how to survive on her own and solve her problemswithout necessary calling her mother for help (Whitty, p.3-4).

Theprimary message/theme in the story is that children must learn toface the world without fear. For example, the main character, Lexie,has been transformed from being a coward to a courageous woman howcan survive alone and overcome difficult situations in her life. Thetheme is relevant to the contemporary society because it portrays theimportance of being courageous. Students must learn to deal difficultsituations without necessary seeking for help from their parents(Whitty, p.4).

Theauthor applies different scenes to influence the actions of thecharacters in the story. The first scene was a solitary walk from thecampus to home while the second one is the house. The Main charactersmoved around the house from the sitting room, bedroom and then to thekitchen. The movements from different scene help to indicate how thecharacter was nervous and afraid of almost everything. For example,most of the scenes were in dark places which helped the Author tobring out the element of fear Cleary (Whitty, pp.4-5).

Thestory relates to the current modern interpretation of the societaltrends in the sense that the characters used are part of the socialsystem. For example, Lexie and her mother form the aspect of a familywhich is the key aspect of the current societal trends. Also, theAuthor mentioned that Lexie was coming out of evening class fromWoodland center campus. The campus is also part of the currentsocietal trends because it shows that Lexie society value educationand influences the character actions (Whitty, p.5).

Althoughthe story has been able to demonstrate the theme of fear, it may faceliterary criticism because it prejudices women by portraying them ascowards and showing that men are supernatural beings (Whitty,pp.5-6).


Theauthor utilized the direct method in developing his characters in thestory. The moral implication of the characters action is to show howchallenges helped the main characters to become a strong, courageouswoman. The theme of the story is that children must learn to overcomefear. Such them is relevant to the contemporary society because itteaches children how they can overcome difficult situations withoutassistance from their parents. The author utilized different scenein the story to show how the main character, Lexie, was molded tobecome a strong character. The story relates to the current societaltrend in the sense that characters are part of the social system.Besides, the campus is also part of the contemporary social trend.However, the story is criticized because it portrays women as weakand coward characters which is not the case.


Whitty.J.Who’sAfraid? 15.08.2012. Web.02.07.2015&lt

Exit Assessments


Pedagogical Theory and ClassroomPractice and Reflection Papers

University of South Florida

Tableof Contents

Table of Contents 2

Introduction 3

Pedagogical Theory Paper 3

Part 1: Context 3

Student Population and Needs 4

The present perfect and issues for learners 5

Present Perfect Issues 5

Aspects that May Cause Particular Problems 6

The present perfect 6

Why it is difficult for ESL learners 6

Difficulty of Arab Learners of English 7

Problems of Present Perfect 8

Present perfect and the simple past 9

Designing a Diagnostic 10

Diagnostic Results 12

Teaching Methods and Approaches 16

Classroom Practice and Reflection Paper 19

Part 2: 19

Teaching Procedures and Justification of Choices 19

Reflection: Lessons and Overall Experience 24

The Lessons 24

The Experience as a Whole 28

References 30

Appendix A 32

Appendix B 33

Appendix C 34

Appendix D 34

Appendix E 36


The project discusses ESLstudents’ comprehension of the difference and the meaning of simplepast tense. The project is derived from the research in practicewhere the needs of the students were identified first. Then, theresearch was done to comprehend the complexities of the grammaticalstructure alongside the efforts to teach. Research-based lesson planswere obstructed and prepared to solve the issue. Post andpre-diagnostic exams were done to improve the student’sunderstanding about rules that governs phrases, clauses and words ina given language. The paper will discuss the present perfect tensesand the issues the learners encounter. The issues that will bediscussed include: present perfect tenses and aspects that may causeparticular problems. The research will then design a diagnostic anddisplay results. In the same regard, teaching methods and approacheswill be discussed. The second part presents teaching procedures andjustification of choices. In conclusion, a reflection of the overallexperience and lessons will be discussed, and illustrate theexperiences as a whole.

PedagogicalTheory PaperPart1: Context

I was assigned to teach grammar,level 3 lessons at INTO USF as part of my internship. INTO-USFillustrated two patterns of the language one pattern is the AcademicEnglish (AE) and the other is the General English (GE). These twopatterns are in conjunction with two pathway programs that weremodeled for the graduate and undergraduate students who needed to beadmitted fully to South Florida University. The paper centers ongrammar students who are in the third academic English program during2016 summer semester.

The educational program will bein operation for ten weeks during the summer semester rather thanduring spring. It presents intensive language training from thebeginner to more advanced levels. The program educates on thedevelopment of the academic skills as well as enhancing spoken andwritten English that will prepare the students for postgraduate orundergraduate study in the United States Universities. The programalso educates the English required for success in an AmericanUniversity or College, presents content-based curriculum andinnovative project. My primary focus will be on producing grammaticalforms for an efficient written and oral communication. Thegrammatical structures include present perfect continuous tenses,present perfect tenses, past perfect continuous tenses, past perfect,passive, and models. The students are reviewed based on ongoingassessment questions, writing presentations and essays. The firstmonth will concentrate on the perfect tenses.

StudentPopulation and Needs

The paper concentrates on level-3grammar class, which consists of 14 international students: two fromChina, two from Kuwait, nine from Saudi Arabia, and one from theUnited Arabs Emirates. The students have distinct experiences oflearning English Language. Some are new students while others arereturning students at INTO USF. The primary objective is to study thegrammatical structure of English and to have the capacity to producea high proficiency level of spoken and written English.

During the first day of theclasses, the instructor started with an icebreaker where each studentintroduced herself/himself and told the class about something theyhad never done before. In many instances, the students used thetenses wrongly and preferred to use simple past or simple presenttenses. A diagnostic exam was done during the same week for them toexamine their proficiency level based on grammatical structures theyhave learned and recognized the areas of complexities that need moreinstructions. The results presented a considerable number of studentswho have taken explicit instructions on the present perfect tense,their comprehension of the tenses are limited to simple past tense,present continuous tenses, simple present tenses and past continuoustenses. They failed to identify the meaning and the form of presentperfect, which is the focus of the paper.

ThePresent Perfect Tenses and Problems to the LearnersPresentPerfect Issues

The problems refer to previousresearch in the context of an investigation or refer to his findingsthat were found before. Present perfect tenses describes the tensesin the current form and illustrates the relevance of the results topresent day. The present perfect of the subject is often presented inthe general form. It could be taken into consideration. Nevertheless,the &quotpresentperfect&quot centerson what has been already done and what is understood as &quotpresentsimple.&quotThe present perfect forms illustrate a correlationbetween the present (the current study) and the past (priorresearch). In essence, a student will say what he/she has establishedand the contribution the students will make. It is also imperative topinpoint the variance existing in the current study. Thus, it isclear that improvement has been achieved.

The passive voice can bedescribed as the most occurring present perfect tense that can beused to portray the previous conclusions without referring to theoriginal paper. For instance, a researcher can start by:&quot……hasbeen studied it has been approved that….” The passive voicegives the capacity to shift the topic of the survey where it willhave more emphasis in the sentence. Present perfect tenses can beused to tell the history of an idea and describe the results ofstudies or draw conclusions (&quotit has led to the conclusionthat…..&quot).

Aspectsthat May Cause Particular ProblemsThePresent Perfect Tenses

The present perfect is utilizedto say that a given action happened at an unspecified time before themoment. Present perfect tenses cannot be used with particular timeexpression such as: &quotone year ago, yesterday, last week, thatday, when I lived in China, one day, etc. The present perfectillustrates unclear phrases such as &quotonce, never, ever, severaltimes etc.&quot The thought of unnamed period can be perplexing tothe English learners. Thus, it is to the best interest to discuss theperfect present. Some learners have difficulty in learning thepresent perfect. This is evidenced by their low score in varioustopics. Various factors cause this difficulty physiological aspectintroduces the body condition of the learner. On the other hand,psychological aspects emphasize on the way the students think. It mayinclude motivation, talents, interests, a special type of learner andmental health. The external factors of the student include the socialenvironment. The students may be affected by the people around theway they use present perfect and how correctly they use.

Whyit is difficult for ESL learners

ESL students produce sentencesthat are a bit strange to the native English user of the language.English present progressive tenses to express actions that are notscheduled in thesaurus dictionary in distinct form and their meaningis complicated to get. The English preposition is a common problemsince diverse languages utilize separate prepositions to convey someideas. It assists the students if several prepositions are used atone period. In the same regard, it helps students if they put thepreposition in the correct setting. The present perfect introducesthe idea that something happened, or it did not occur at all atunspecified time in the past. In essence, the exact time is notcritical, and this poses a problem to the students since they cannotconnect to the past and the present

Difficultyof Arab Learners of English

Arab students face challenges ofthe preposition. The preposition use is the most complex for EFL Arabstudents. The most common prepositions that pose this challengeincludes: &quotof, at,for, with, to and on&quot. TheMTI is a strategy that can be used in learning that most Arablearners retreat exclusively in acquiring poor classroom conditionswhere language exposure is limited to some few hours. Most of themistakes are derived from mother tongue’s influence as the primarysource. Previous studies support these findings. An Arabicpreposition is similar to the English one. The indigenous languageinterference relates to the issues of literal Arabic translations.The adult learners may be informed about their transfer strategy.Prepositions play the part of the grammatical maker, knowledgeextraction, and indexing because they suggest correlation of muchsignificance like instruments, comparisons and estimation.Prepositions are words that are placed before a pronoun or a noun toshow or indicate what relation an individual has, regarding adifferent thing.

The articles system is thehardest constituent for EFL students in the Arabic language. Master(2002) connects this complex nature of the English “article the”function words &quottheand a/n&quot, are notemphasized and are complicated for non-native speakers. The speakersof Arabic language have a problematic issue of definiteness. The nounphrase describes that the difficulty arising in the area of the nounphrase is the use of articles. Several errors occur in the usage ofarticles. One error is: indefinite articles are deleted where astudent fails to include it. The student may write the &quotindefiniteas definite form.&quot The students may align the indefinitearticles with the adjectives. A student may have difficulty in usingthe indefinite article with the many parts. For instance, a studentmay say. &quotTherewere a captivating text……received from.&quotIt is, therefore, clear that most of ESL/EFL from the Arab nationhave difficulty in the use of the article. The problem is dependenton the mother`s language of the learner. Oversimplification andovergeneralization were found to be the underlying source ofdifficulty.

Another challenge is thediscourse makers. Speechmaker is a sequential process that includesreviewing, planning, thinking, developing, presenting and editing. Inessence, it is an instrument used to establish the language andextend critical thinking in all disciplines. A study by Modhish`s(2012) discusses that EFL Arab students use contrastive, elaborative,contributory, and the subjects that relate to markers. It is evidentfrom their writing that DMs were overused. For instance, theyoverused &quotand,furthermore, as well as, also, etc.”The poor writing quality of the learners is related to sentences thatare deemed to be erroneous. Most of the educators depended entirelyon their mother`s tongue literal translation into English

Problemsof Present Perfect Tenses

The present perfect is animperative tense in the English language. Nevertheless, it giveslearners of the language a hard time since it uses the ideas andconcepts that are not in other languages. In essence, its structureis very simple. The problems arise with the usage of the tenses.There are distinctions between American and British English. Thepresent perfect is deductively taught by giving rules andhighlighting the form or with guided full exposure and discovery tothe meaning of the forms. Present perfect cannot be taught in onelesson but should initiate its various forms and use distinct levelsover a period differentiating them with past participle.

Students have several issues withthe present perfect. Intra-language issues include those that thestudents have an ideal aspect in their mother tongue and use itdifferently. Students may often mix-up based on the time and tensesand cannot distinguish between aspect and tense. The students at alower level often use the auxiliary wrongly, mix-up forms of presentperfect and past simple or combine them. Students also have issues todo with recognizing the contracted forms since they tend not to usethem. The students make mistakes with understanding the contractedforms. The problems arise as a result of the irregular verb at alower level and intermediate levels. Another complex issue is theprogressive issue. The student makes arguments based on the positionof &quotalready, just,still, and yet&quot.

This problem can be solved bydrilling, highlighting the forms and giving the students, amplepractice tasks that can assist. Students can be helped to notice whatgo hand in hand with the past participle or noun. Accuracy can beachieved through substitution tables at pre-intermediate level. If itis an assessment of a form is made, the activity can be morechallenging by allowing students to form change table. Skeletonsentences can be presented to the students to complete. Memorizationhas to be made for the irregular verbs. Nevertheless, students shouldbe assisted to find the regularities by giving them group verbsformed in the same way. Job game is a fun way of practicingprogressive form. Both perfect aspect and simple tense exist in theArabic language. Timelines assist in illustrating the distinctivenessbetween definite and indefinite time in the past. Different designsare to be used. The visual students use symbols. Present perfectprogressive or present perfect tenses poses one distinct challenge:students usually use mix-ups randomly. The difference inherent in themeaning is in most cases unclear to the students and thus making ithard for them to apply it in the right context.

Presentperfect and the simple past

Present perfect simple shows theunfinished actions that started in the past and are continuing to thepresent. For instance, &quotI have known Lisa for eight years now&quot.On the contrast, simple past deals with complete actions such as “Iknew Lisa for eight years before we lost touch”. The twodistinctions have a weak line and therefore it is hard for thestudents to bring out the differences. The present perfect can beused to talk about the present situation that happened at anunspecified time whereas the simple past expresses the point of timein the past.

Our workings on the languageillustrate five components: semantics, syntax, morphology,pragmatics/discourse and phonology. Phonology describes theintonation patterns and sounds associated with the spoken language.Interpretation includes the words and meaning of the terms related tothe phrase. Morphology describes the rules governing the use ofmorphemes. Syntax describes grammatical rules of languages.Pragmatics explains how we adjust our speech to the audience and theuse of language towards communication goal.

Designinga Diagnostic

To determine the ability of thestudent to use present perfect tenses appropriately, the studentswere required to respond in paragraph form. During the first meeting,the students were asked to introduce themselves and say somethingthat they had never done before. This task functions as an icebreakerfor the first student-teaching meeting. The task also operates as adiagnostic of the learner’s ability and use the present perfectbefore the instructions. The trainer wanted the students to producethe target structure naturally. The present perfect was thefundamental choice to use. However, no one used the tenses correctlyeven when the instructor designed it first.

The second part of the diagnosticconcentrated on the abilities of the student to produce written formsof the present perfect. In essence, the students were told to postthe writing prompt “whois Hillary Clinton?&quot.As a result, they were told to look for online information aboutClinton and then post 2-3 questions using the present perfect. Thisdiagnostic assessment is aimed at evaluating the capacity of thestudents to use the present perfect after regular instruction andalso identify the area of confusion. The discussion post assisted infunctionalizing the learned grammatical structure. The aim of havingthe student to post online is to give them space and time to thinkabout the use and the form of the tense and to form sentences thatare grammatically correct. The educator uses this diagnostic reviewto identify the area of complexity and to expand the research-basedlesson plans. The question and diagnostic results answered thequestion of why the students were not able to use present perfect inthe right setting.

The third diagnostic assessmentwas administered after an array of research-based lesson plans. Thestudents were asked to submit a well-written essay about HillaryClinton. This evaluation was aimed at understanding the ability ofthe student to make a distinction between the uses of differenttenses when to use the simple past, when to use the present perfecttenses and which verbs are impossible to use in present perfect. Allthe diagnostic assessments are found in Appendix A

One of the first things to takeinto consideration in language education is getting to understandyour student`s capacities based on their knowledge about the tenses.It is imperative to think of the diagnostic review so as to know theproficiency level of student and previous experience before anyinstruction occurs. A diagnostic review was modeled alongside mymentor to assess the awareness of the student based on the tenses,what they don`t know and what they know. The results presentedinformation about the previous knowledge of the student before theinstructor made any elevated expectations from the students. A set ofthe diagnostic review were created to identify the ability of thetarget student to comprehend the meaning and form of the presentperfect. One basic way was identifying the abilities of the studentsbefore any instruction, the other was after the instruction and thelast one was after a series of research-based lesson plans.

In designing the diagnostic, theconsiderations above were the main concerns. Since the summersessions are just ten weeks long and include ten major assignmentsthat are to be completed in class, the instructor needed the studentsreading and producing materials that would rationally fit with theobjectives and curriculum. When modeling the diagnostic review, thetime constraints remain to be the biggest problem to be considered bythe instructor. There were explicit assumptions of the instructorbefore the semester began. The instructor pre-prepared for the firstassessment and was concise cut from the first day of the class toconsider the present perfect as the integral of the paper.


The diagnostic assessments weredispensed to fourteen students in grammar class, nine of them werereturning students while remaining five were new students. As part ofthe first day of classes, the instructor was inquisitive by natureabout their proficiency level. Therefore, the instructor asked themto introduce themselves. The students took an extensive, productionbased diagnostic during the first day of the class. Meanwhile, thetutor was evaluating their proficiency level as well as correctsgrammatical structures usage. The teacher then asked them to saysomething they had never done before and thus designing the firstturn.

The focus of the assignment isthe spoken utterance of the present perfect. There were significantissues that were noticed using the present perfect while writing downtheir errors in notes form. The students failed to realize that theywere required to give particular grammatical structure, and theirprimary concern was on introducing themselves. The assessmentpresented natural utterances that were free of the stress of beingevaluated or judged on grammatical structures.

The results showed that none ofthe students had the capacity to use the present perfect tenses inthe right context and correct form, and each had his/her particularerror. Most of the students were not able to use the majorcombination of the right grammatical structure of the present perfectwhich is the past participle verb and auxiliary verb. Less than halfof the class got the capacity to use auxiliary verbs. However, theychose the incorrect verb choice, either past or progressive form.Three of the students used the present progressive such as &quotIhave never eaten Chinese food&quot. Five students, on the otherhand, used the past form such as &quotI have never written plays&quot.The problem here indicated their previous knowledge on thegrammatical structure of the present perfect. Nevertheless, itreflected that they were not able to functionalize the tense in theright meaning and form.

The first pair of classes of thesemester focused on the present perfect. Although the studentsincluded some transitions in diagnostic response, the teacher feltthat, after the instructions had been present, students should havethe capacity to use and comprehend the present perfect in the correctmeaning and form despite the limitations they had. By the end of thecurrent excellentclass, the studentswere asked to look up for information about Hillary Clinton fromonline sources. They were required to form 2-3 sentences using thepresent perfect. Then, they were required to post them under CANVASdiscussions. The students were asked to ensure that they had newinformation besides the posts from their classmates. The purpose wasto check the ability to look up for information and use presentperfect with the right information. It may sound easy since it isjust two sentences and they can use the online information, butpractically it is complex. The main concerns of the students are theform. Now, they know the form but fail to understand how to apply it.It cannot be applicable in each action. Some of the informationoccurred in the past, so it should not be used in present perfectwhere each action and sentence has an explicit consideration based onpresent perfect meaning.

Once the student posts theirsentences under debate, the educator categorized and assessed themajor incorrect utterances presented by the students. Based on theform, most of the students wrote the sentences correctly based onpresent perfect since they had the subject first then the auxiliaryverb followed, and finally, the past participle. There were severalerrors regarding the past participle. Nevertheless, all the errorswere in usage. The students failed to functionalize the correct formin the right context. The present perfect has its individual setting.Nevertheless, for some actions and verbs, it cannot be used at all.The discussion was modeled and carried out to scrutinize and classifythe sources and types of the students` errors in comprehending thepresent perfect tense.

The review of the discussionposts was by classification of mistakes coder`s the errors wereclassified based on the distinction between reconstructed version andthe utterance of the learner. His classification was categorized intofour stages the addition of unnecessary elements omissions ofrequired elements misordering of the elements and misselection ofthe incorrect item. The errors of student were categorized based oncoder`s classification as presented in the table. From the frequencyof mistakes, it is evident that misselection was the mostfrequently shown error by the students. A list of error of frequenterrors is provided in the table.





Student 1

^ ^ ^

Student 2


Student 3

Student 4


Student 5

Student 6



Student 7

^ ^^

Student 8



Student 9



Student 10



Student 11


Student 12



Student 13

^ ^

Student 14

The frequency of errors resultsindicates that misselection was the most frequent besides that theoverall observation from the post displayed that most of the studentsused the correct form. However, the tenses were overused andgeneralized. There is a massive mix-up between the usage of simplepast and present perfect. The instructor determined that extraassistance was needed by students in differentiating between thetenses so as to comprehend the distinction first and then use thecorrect tenses in the right setting. It can be said that errorsusually happen if the learner is yet to learn an item although thesubject has been covered in class. The instructor then concludes thatthe incurrent usage of language system elements. However, it can beself-corrected.

Although the students did well inselecting appropriate present perfect in the right setting, most ofthe students hardly used the present perfect correctly. The paltryusage of connecting the present perfect in diagnostic 1 falls shortof the automaticity of this skill. The overall results that werederived from diagnostic 2 show that most students had a problem inlinking present perfect in the right context whereas the tenses wereoverused and generalized.

TeachingMethods and Approaches

The study aimed to scrutinize theexperience of career educator who taught grammar to EFL collegestudent through the use of DDL for the first time. It is evident thatthe educators found data-driven learning an exciting and innovativemethod to teach present tenses, approve the ability of DDL to offermore incentives for students into the active learners. The resultsalso showed some setback that entailed DDL and the feasible ways forthe teachers to meet them. The challenge was inclusive of anincreased technical complexities and workload in designing the DDLmaterials and conducting tasks that were DDL-centered. However, theteachers ultimately expand their teachings by pursuing threefundamental practices: deploying concordance lines that werecomplete, minimizing the number of corpus. Also, entries were usedand the educator asked the students focus guiding queries.

Various education practices areassociated with inquiry-based learning such as in problem solving.Despite the diversity in inquiry, terminology in higher educationliterature, it is described as the approaches to teaching that areproblem-based and question driven. There is international interestbased on the inquiry role in the undergraduate courses and acrossvarious disciplines. It can be argued that memory oriented styles,traditional didactic of teaching will no longer meet the needs of thestudents. Critical inquiry pedagogy focuses on the social relationsand injustice of power and presents various inequalities, promotesand examines practices that have the possibility of transformingsocial relations or oppressive institutions through educationalpractices.

This may be differentiated fromthe rules written in the textbooks. It was found that corpus-informeddata brought satisfaction in learning grammar to the EFL learners.Grammatical knowledge does not guarantee fluency in language. Thereare diverse ESL students who perform well on grammar test but havelittle capacity to speak or understand English. Contrastingly, mostof the native English speakers have a complexity in explaining rulesof grammar. The researchers have distinguished between the focus onforms in second language transition (Doughty, 2003).

Focusing on the form is thepurposeful teaching grammar to present a comprehension of grammar inthat comprehending alone will give a capacity for the languagelearner to use the form correctly. On the other hand, focus on theform refers to conveying grammar to the attention of the students ofthe language as part of the communicative practice of the language.It is conceded that focusing on grammar for the sake of language doesless to contribute the accuracy during communication while ensuringthat the ESL learners are aware of the structure as part ofcommunicative language practice can add to the development of greatercommunication accuracy.

In a bid to maximize the academicgrowth of students, one of the best tools that the instructors canuse is the explicit instructions. The clear instructions focus oncritical content where the educator teaches strategies, skills,concepts, vocabulary terms and rules that will motivate the studentsshortly and match the instructional needs of the students. Theimplicit instructions break down the complex strategies and skillsinto smaller units of instruction. Complex skills are segmented intosmaller units of new materials to addresses the cognitive processingdemands, overloading and the capacity of the working memory of thestudent.

An explicit practical instructioncan be viewed as presenting an array of instructional supportsthrough logical sequencing or selection of the content and break downthe material into instructional units that are manageable based onthe cognitive abilities of the students. The instruction deliveryincludes clear demonstrations and description of skills followed bytimely feedback and supported practice. The primary method is carriedthroughout high levels of involving the educator. Nevertheless, oncethe student succeeds, the support system of the teacher is withdrawnsystematically, and the students move towards the independentperformance.

The study into &quotfocus onform&quot of ESL grammar instruction recommends three feasible waysthat contribute to the development of the communicative ability. Inthe first case, direct ESL grammar may assist in raising theconsciousness of the learner of the form in which they have noticedwhen they hear or read it in that the students may recognize thefeature and listen to it in the long run (Ellis, 2003 SharwoodSmith, 1981). The second reason for the grammatical knowledge is thatit serves as a device to the memory thus assisting the ESL learnersto remember how certain form are produced until they can present itautomatically (Blair, 1982).

The ESL grammar instructions candefine floodingstudents withinstances of a form that infrequently occurs, giving them moreintensive practice with the form that they might not encounter intheir everyday speech except on weekly basis. Knowledge of grammardoes not yield fluent language speakers. There are diverse ESLlearners who do exceptionally on grammar tests. Nevertheless, theyhave little capacity to speak or understand English. Contrastingly,most of the native speakers who speak flawlessly have a complexity inexplaining the rules of grammar. TALL ESL system emphasizes on formtechnique for grammar instructions. In the same regard, TALL presentgrammar in a way that it does not need the ESL learners to develop arich foundation of grammatical terms but rather helps the learner toremember the particular structure of the utterances. Instead ofpresenting ESL with rules of discussion, Tall prefers enlivenedexamples which focus on the correlation between the meaning and theform. Just in time grammar defines the usage of grammatical exercisesand explanations presented as part of the activity-based approach toESL learning where the performance of the activities is paramount,and presentation of grammar is the tool used to increase accuracy andfacilitate communication.

Corpus is a massive compilationof reliable texts in the electronic design that is modeled torepresent a variety of language. However, it is controversial even inthe realm of corpus linguistics. The DDL tasks are thought to be partof a student-centered research approach, and some of the experiencedteachers believe that most of the nonmajor students lack proficiencyand motivation to engage in such activities. CALL is a greatsignificance and importance in acquiring of second languages. Thereare various journals devoted to research on topics. Most of the ESLtextbooks now have accompanying websites with interactive privatestudies. It is clear that most of the learners are searching onlinesources in distinct ways that are not similar to data drivenlearning. This is a procedure that may be wholly encouraging by theireducator at the same time staying obscured in the literature of datadriven learning. This procedure is present in unique approaches thatseem appealing. Extensive preparation is limited by space and thus,the students cannot research on detailed theories DDL. The author ofthis study claims that DDL are effective since they create aninstance where research can be done. Higher motivation level is, ofcourse, desirable in this course.

ClassroomPractice and Reflection PaperPart2:TeachingProcedures and Justification of Choices

Regarding the diagnostic results,it is evident that the ESL students are facing a lot of complexitiesin understanding the differences between simple past and presentperfect. The diagnostic assessment that was submitted to this grammarclass showed that the students were confused between present perfectand the simple past based on the usage and meaning, and they overusedthe present perfect in various aspects in trying to attain the timelypost without getting the distinction between the two tenses.

Thus, in a class setting whereone of the primary objectives is to use the present perfect inwritten and spoken settings, it is vital to attain these goals andassesses the abilities of the students to produce a grammaticalstructure in written and spoken context appropriately. From therequirement of an institution as the primary objectives alongside theneeds of the student, it is ideally perfect to identify the needs ofthe students and assess them as they make progress.

Three main goals were modeled tobe attained after an array of research-based lesson plans. In thefirst instance, the students should comprehend and realize thedistinction between simple past and present perfect regarding itsmeaning. Secondly, the students should exhibit the prerequisite toidentify the time signals for the present perfect when comparing itto the ones aimed for simple past. Thirdly, the students shouldpractice and use the two tenses consequently in written and spokensettings. To attain the objectives, extensive research was conductedto gibbet the lesson plans with a theory to practical on inquisitivelearning, DDL and “focus on forms” and “focus on form”approaches. The approaches methods of educating above were founduseful in teaching the present perfect alongside the hypothesis ofthe instructor on the effectiveness of discovery learning techniquesin class (teaching inductive grammar).

The ELP (English LanguageProgram) at INTO-USF present the four market of the best practice.These includes: engage student through student-centered tasks, teachlanguage through content, include the culturally responsive teachingsin lessons and assess students through various techniques. The threemarkers are constituents that can be incorporated into three basiclesson sketches. The other constituent is something that the educatorrequires to be aware of during the lessons.

The first lesson as presented inAppendix B was modeled to have an array of inquiry of actionsexplicit instruction discovers the difference and then rulesapplication. Each student was given six sentences, each of the twohas the same agents but with diverse time forms and signals (one isin the present perfect and one in the simple past). The students weretold to identify the tenses without indicating which is or offeringthem terms. The students were then asked to cite the distinctionbetween each of the sentences. The first sentence was the hardest,and the other moved smoothly. The students worked individually andidentified and mentioned the difference. The intentions of the taskare to ensure that each of the students has their hypothesis andrationale and converse it with the class. The tasks took around tenminutes that were followed by student-student discussions andteacher-student discussions. A considerable number of students did anexemplary job in justifying their answers based on the time and formof signals. However, when it came to the meaning, a considerablenumber of students felt the same. After this activity, an explicitexplanation was provided to illustrate distinction between presentperfect and simple past.

The educator used textbook sinceINTO USF is syllabus that is content based, then she presented themwith an array of sentences alongside time signals explanations inpower point slides. Thus, everyone will be available to see thesentences. The instructor offered a concise explanation to use thepresent perfect and simple past, why it is complex, usage and timesignals indicate tenses. The students were given a handout after theexplicit explanation. They have to work in pairs and debate on theanswers. Most of the students made complete sentences with the rightanswers to the questions. The students did an excellent job not tocomplete the sentences but also in justifying their answers andrationalizing the differences.

The second lesson was modeled togive the student some review on the differences between the twotenses, identify the tenses in the corpus and determine the use oftenses in the listening script. The teacher assessed what had beencovered previously based on the differences between “simple pastand present perfect”. The instructor wrote four sentences on theboard and asked the students to complete the either the sentences bywriting down time or a number.

After the assessment part, theinstructor played audio from the textbook. The students were supposedto listen twice, during the second time they were to write thesentences in simple past, present perfect continuous and presentperfect. Once they wrote sentence in their notes, the instructor drewthree columns on board and played the audio. After each of thesentence, the teacher paused and asked one student to write sentencesunder one of the columns on board based on his/her thoughts. The aimof the tasks was to ensure that the students think and identify thegrammatical structure and use the “simple past and the presentperfect” in listening task. The corpus-based work was given to thestudents. The instructors expounded on the definition of the corpusand how it is necessary to use authentic grammatical structureinstances. COCOA was then used where students were showed how to findsentences in full context using a time signal. The teacher began thelesson with the word yesterdayand then listedseveral sentences appeared on the screen and then they were shown howthe sentences occur in the pure form. The instructor then asked themto create groups and workout on identifying the verbs and forms ineach of the sentences.

Apparently, there should be anapplication task where the students are divided into groups whereeach of the group had crayons, plain papers, and slip. The papersheet indicated a celebrity. Each team was made to look up forinformation about their favorite celebrity. Each group was made tolook up for information about a celebrity and prepare a five-minutepresentation to the class. In the same regard, the students wererequired to draw on plain graphs, pictures, tables but not to draftsentences. They were required to use simple present or past perfectwhen performing. The purpose of the task was to ensure that thestudent lookup for and synthesized information and presented it toclass

The goal of the activities is thespoken production aimed at the grammatical structures. The studentsare supposed to find information in present perfect and simple past.The idea of the event is that, previously, they had a lot of mistakesregarding the choice of the right tense when speaking about the lifeof a famous person. When diagnostic assessment was made in HillaryClinton`s post, one of the biggest problems was the overuse ofpresent perfect when talking about a person`s life.

The third lesson as presented inAppendix D has centered entirely on an independent production oftargets Las inherent in the initial compositions made by the student.The experience was required to include independent production byreviewing activity since it was the last set of the project. Based onthis assessment, I knew I needed to give the student what they needto do in diagnostic.

The teacher went back to thediscussion post about Hillary Clinton and reviewed the sentencesindividually and corrected them with students. This action was aimedto ensure that the students realize their mistakes using the presentperfect and how they overuse the present perfect over simple past,and the way there exist several events to use present perfect. Afterrationalizing the correction and identifying the errors, the studentswere arranged into groups and asked to compose well-written essaysfrom the online resource and discussion post using the correct tenseseither present perfect or simple past. This activity is aimed atmaking the student realize their mistakes and to give feedback anddiscuss when adding more information. Each of the team was asked overto show their project on the overhead projector, and the teacheralong with students gave each team constructive feedback based on theessay.

Reflection:Lessons and Overall Experience

Each of the lessons illustrationof the difference between simple past and the present perfect wasexceptional. Each of the experience had distinct purposes andobjectives, with the initial lesson being the most focused ondetailed explanation and presentation of the difference betweenpresent perfect and simple past. The second focused on realizationand identification of the language spoken and form production of theintended grammatical structure and the third focused on understandingand identification of spoken production and grammatical production ofthe proposed grammatical structure. The third focused onindependently written production and served as diagnostic assessmentpost.

I am sure that these objectivesworked better to give exposure to students to practice with thedifference between the present perfect and simple past and presentperfect from comprehending their meaning, getting to understand thegrammatical structure and spoken texts to apply them in speaking andwriting.


The first lesson was exceptional.I knew I would need to contemplate on the arrangement of thecorrelating present perfect. I needed the students to be familiarwith INTO USF as part of my internship. INTO-USF showed two patternsof the language one pattern is the Academic English (AE) and GeneralEnglish (GE) program along with two pathway programs that weremodeled for the graduate and undergraduate students. I also learnedthat students had problems when it comes to present perfect tenses.During the first day of the classes, the instructor started with anicebreaker where each student introduced herself/himself and tell theclass about something they have never done before. The presentperfect is an important tense in the English language since it gavelearners of the language a hard time. In essence, its structure wasvery simple. The problems were derived from the usage of the tenses.The present perfect was deductively taught by giving rules andhighlighting the form or with guided full exposure and discovery tothe form in meaning and at a higher authentic context level.

It is clear that present perfectcannot be taught in one lesson but should initiate its various formsand use distinct levels over a period differentiating them with pastparticiple. After checking in the example that was given by thestudents, they were encouraged to check for more examples relating totenses. Students had several issues with the present perfect. Afterchecking on the examples that they had presented, they were adept atidentifying intra-language issues. These issues included those thatthe learners had an ideal aspect in their mother’s language andused it differently. It was noted that the students mixed up based onthe time and tenses and could not distinguish between aspect andtense.

The assessment part was found tobe more imperative. The second lesson was initiated seven days afterthe first lesson. The students were more excited about it: I believein shifting the week`s approach and dynamics of this class as anarray of the team games. All learners who engaged in the first lessoncompleted the activity. My objective for the second lesson was aimedat allowing the students to produce targets that connect presentperfect, and all learners were able to engage in third and secondactivities. The students completed each of the tasks in the secondlesson quite successfully. Nevertheless, some issues arose. Forinstance, the students at a lower level often used the auxiliarywrongly, mixed-up forms of present perfect and past simple or combinethem. The groups did not succeed in the second task. The studentsalso had issues to do with recognizing the contracted forms sincethey tended not to use them. The students made mistakes withunderstanding the contracted forms since they could not usethemselves.

The problems arose as a result ofthe irregular verb at a lower level and intermediate levels. Theperformed well in the last task it was modeled to be a bitcomplicated. All along, I identified that I needed the learners toget an opportunity for autonomous practice with the task and my tutormade an argument to keep the energy and competition high. To succeed,the learners were told to post the writing prompt. The discussionpost assisted in functionalizing the learned grammatical structure.The aim of having the student to post online was to give them spaceand time to think about the use and the form of the tense and to formsentences that are grammatically correct.

This technique in the thirdactivity had some issues. The focus of the assignment was the spokenutterance of the present perfect. There were significant issues thatwere noticed using the present perfect while writing down theirerrors in notes form. The students failed to realize that they wererequired to give particular grammatical structure, and their primaryconcern was on introducing themselves. The assessment presentednatural utterances that were free of the stress of being evaluated orjudged on grammatical structures. Although this was not the mainproblem, it is an exception that I needed to motivate the students toconsider this issue. In essence, whatever I did was aimed atinforming the learners in class. This is potential mixed-up in onesetting and this can be improved greatly.

The third diagnostic assessmentwas administered after an array of research-based lesson plans wasdiscussed. The students were asked to submit a well-written essayabout Hillary Clinton. This evaluation was aimed at understanding theability of the student to make a distinction between the uses ofdifferent tenses when to use the simple past, when to use the presentperfect and which verbs are impossible to use in present perfect.

I received positive feedback frommy mentor on this lesson. She gave me constructive comments thatrelated to the comments I gave on the second task and the way I dealtwith present perfect issues. One of the first things that I took intoconsideration in language education was getting to understand thestudent`s capacities based on their knowledge about the tenses. Adiagnostic review was modeled alongside my mentor to assess theawareness of the student based on the tenses, what they don`t knowand what they know. The results presented information about theprevious knowledge of the student before the instructor made anyelevated expectations from the students. The main suggestions of mymentor were that it would have been imperative to find instances ofpresent perfect and tenses in the right context and ensure that thelearners avoid over-generalizing them.

In the meantime, I think it wouldbe necessary nevertheless, time is a limiting factor. After thestudents completed writing down the paragraphs, there was less timeleft for the learners. Most probably, I would have given themhomework that needed them to focus on the spoken utterances. Thestudents failed to realize that they were required to give particulargrammatical structure, and their primary concern was on introducingthemselves. The assessment presented natural utterances that werefree of the stress of being evaluated or judged on grammaticalstructures.

TheExperience as a Whole

The ultimate session derived fromthe assignment was presented one week before the summer sessionended. In writing this, the learners have already completed theirfinal projects. Whatever is written on their papers is reallymotivating me since most of the learners presented a well written anda long piece of their tasks. All learners were successful in usingpresent perfect. It is thus satisfying to see them progress.Initially, there were diverse issues that were encountered. Some ofthe problems include problems based on the position of &quotalready,just, still, and yet&quot. This issue can be solved by drilling,highlighting the forms and giving the students with ample practicetasks can assist. Students can be supported helped to notice what goalongside the past participle or noun. Correctness can be trainedwith substitution tables at pre-intermediate level.

I was fortunate to collectfeedback from the students. The feedback can be seen in Appendix Ewhere learners gave their feedback without indicating their names. Itwas encouraging to get positive feedback. The students reported thatthe three lessons discussing the complexity involved in presentperfect were of great assistance, and they understood more of it thanthey did before the lessons began. Also, it is imperative since thethree lessons can be referred as the most important by at least twostudents. Previously, I felt that the session would be the least tosucceed.

The assignment and the entireattachment period was massive activity. The study that I went throughin organizing the session was different from other preparation I hadundergone previously in class since whatever I have come across isbased on lessons modeled from class projects. I feel that after doingand creating lesson-based research (both the needs of the studentsand literature) and then getting to see the lessons in actionalongside their results, demonstrate a closer correlation betweenresearch and teaching. It is, therefore, imperative to note thatparticular recommendations are involved in teaching linking presentperfect in the literature and writing out and taking generalrecommendations on detailed lessons were an exciting process.

I have been away from particularstudents` needs and the importance of the context for a while.Nevertheless, enacting the lesson plans enhanced that belief.Although I was applying suggestions approaches derived from theliterature on the complexity of present perfect and ESL students, inthe end, the needs of my students and the course objectives formedthe basis of what happened in the plan of the lesson. Essentially,this was accurate given the unique context of teaching the summersessions it is not at all times the case to achieve these goals andrelate to the students requirements in a short period. The balancebetween the recommendations derived from the research, curriculum andstudent’s need is something I will strive to attain in future evenwhen with limited timeframe.

I am happy to have gotten thecapacity to teach and develop the lessons and carry them out withseveral students. It was rewarding to see the progress. I amfortunate that I got a chance to have a positive impact on students.Also, the excellent mentors who came to assist me at one point intime were of great significance since they helped me in designingclass lessons. The experience is amazing, and I will carry it on andassist other people in my profession as an educator.


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Models of teaching andlearning are critical pieces to instructional planning and deliverybecause they help educators:

1) Develop highly tuned and morevaried professional repertoires

2) allow them to reach largernumbers for students more effectively

3) Create either more uniform, orvaried, or effective instructional events, guided by targetedsubjects, content, or processes

4) Understand curricular focibetter, especially as different models can be matched specifically toboth learning outcomes and/or targeted learning populations

5) Gain needed insights into whysome methods work with some learners, while others do not


Public Policy



Thechallenge that most local governments have grappled with over theyears regards getting enough funds to carry out economic developmentin their areas of jurisdiction. In most countries, the resourcesprovided by the national government are never sufficient to meet allthe needs of the local administration. Given the above problem, thelocal governments constantly device various public policies aimed atgenerating revenues to facilitate the development at the grassrootslevels. These policies are intended to utilize the locally availableresources in a manner that is productive, which not only generatesrevenue to the local government but also create employmentopportunities to the locals.

Onesuch policy is the Tourism Promotion Policy, which is aimed atmarketing the local tourism destinations at the local and regionallevel. The tourism industry is one potential area that the localgovernment can promote as a means of achieving both social andeconomic development goals. The utilization of policies aimed at thepromotion of tourism sector is increasingly becoming salient,especially at the local levels where the industry has played afundamental role in supplementing the declining profitability inlocal economies.

Therefore,promotion of the tourism sector and its development as a whole is amechanism for boosting regional development. The regular players inthis arrangement are the local governments themselves who have theresponsibility for developing the sector, promoting it, and puttingup infrastructure that supports their operations. Other players inthe success of this are the locals who must co-operate with thegovernment to ensure that the tourist sites are protected, and thevisitors are safe. These policies will positively impact on the localcommunities through job creation that will improve their livingstandards. Besides, the local government will also generate enoughrevenues to finance other development projects such as infrastructureprojects and social amenities like recreational facilities.(Shaftritz, Karen &amp Borick, 2005).

Anecdotalevidence is proof based on anecdotes. This evidence is based onpersonal accounts as opposed to research or facts. They constitutestories told and are not necessarily reliable. Anecdotal evidence iswidely applied in policy making despite the lack of scientific dataor facts to back it. The policies are usually meant to affect thepublic. Therefore, the assumption taken when using anecdotal evidenceis that it forms a reflection of the public opinion. In most cases,the opinion makers in a country are exceptional individuals who arehaving diverse experience in particular areas where their input isrequired. Therefore, this means that these people can apply theirexperience in formulating policies (Birkland, 2015).

Despitehaving weak or no scientific backing, the anecdotal evidence isapplied in public policy debate since it is frequently presented byreal people based on real events. Therefore, to this extent, it isvery reliable. Given that public policies are subjects to change andcontinuous adjustments, it makes it expensive to conduct scientificresearch in their formulations. Anecdotal evidence is suitable inthis case since, in the event that the policy fails, quick changescan be done without further research to correct the errors.Narratives are central to policymaking just as they are to one`slife. Individuals live in a society where people tell stories, sharetheir experiences, problems, and also craft possible solutions to thevery problems affecting the community. From these narratives, policymakers can receive important ideas applicable in policy formulationthat directly answers the questions raised should they be implemented(Stone, 2011).

Elitetheory is a public policy principle that asserts that the greatestpower in public affairs is held by a few minorities made up of theeconomic elites as well as policy planning networks. This minorityholds this power irrespective of the outcomes of the elections. Thetheory further argues that this elite group possesses a large amountof knowledge, intelligence, and skills necessary for running publicaffairs either in general flair or “behind the doors.” The elitegroup runs the society while the rest of the people remainincapacitated or incompetent to govern themselves effectively. Elitetheorists believe that important decisions on public affairs cannotbe left in the hands of the public but rather a few groups of elites.For instance the policy of privatization adopted by most governmentsto reduce the financial and administration burdens in running publiccompanies is an elite policy.

Onthe contrary, Pluralism holds on to the view that real power lieswith the bigger majority from various organizations. This isirrespective of whether these groups originate from the governmentalinstitutions or not. The theory affirms that since democracy is abattle of ideas and ideals, in a space that is crowded no individualpolitical group is capable of dominating and overpowering the otherplayers. Given this fact of non-dominance, all the players are thusforced to compromise their positions to reach a consensus and pass asound public policy for the benefit of the whole community. Anexample of a pluralist public policy is the National Social WelfarePolicy which is aimed at empowering the citizens to face the socialchallenges and develop the human potential.

Ina summary, the theory of elites states that a single elite minorityand not significant competing groups, makes decisions on the keyissues of the nation as whole leaving the other minor issues to themiddle class with the ordinary people having almost no say. On theother hand, the pluralists contend that the inclusion of competinginterests is necessary for making public decisions. However, in bothcases, the common citizenry alone is incompetent and not capable ofexerting their influence on the structures of the government withoutthe assistance of the well-funded elites (Bottomore, 1993).


Bottomore,T. (1993). Elitesand society(2nd Edition). London: Routledge.

Birkland,T. (2015). AnIntroduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts, and models ofpublic policy making, 4th Edition. U.S.A:M.E.SharpeShaftritz,J., Karen, L., &amp Borick, C. (2005). Classicsof public policy.New York: Pearson Longman.

Stone,D. (2011). Policyparadox: The art of political decision making.New York: W.W. Norton.

Roles In Interprofessionalism

RolesIn Interprofessionalism

RolesIn Interprofessionalism

Nursingis a very critical component within any medical facility because ofthe substantial role it plays in ensuring successful healthcaredelivery and better services are offered for patient satisfaction anda facilitated recovery process. If I was not a nursing student, Iagree with the alternative of being a dietitian. Just like thenursing profession, a dietitian forms an integral part of thehealthcare team carrying out various tasks as directed by physician.Due to the fact that nutrition is one of my greatest passions, itwould further be a motivating factor in my desire to be a dietitian.Withdietetics, I will be able to screen and assess the inpatients withinthe medical facility, conduct a review of the charts and the labs,get the medical history or progress of the patients as well as theirphysical appearance and thereafter make recommendations or educatethem on their diet. Also, it is everyone’s wish to work in a stressfree environment with minimal or no work pressure. Dietetics isassociated with much less stress since it involves more ofinteracting with the patients and giving recommendations for theirnutrition. (Lutz,Mazur, &amp Litch, 2015).

IfI was not a nursing student, I would chose to be a physicaltherapist. I therefore, fully support and agree with them. Despitethe fact that a master’s degree is the minimum requirement forphysical therapy entry-level jobs, I like physical therapy and I willgo for it because of various reasons. To begin with, physical therapyis a more rewarding career just like nursing which offers competitivesalary packages (Fair,2011).Secondly, it has a wider scope in terms of job opportunities. Equallyimportant, physical therapists are accorded more respect. It is thewish of any medical practitioner to be granted the respect theydeserve when carrying out their duties. This improves theirself-esteem, motivates them and makes them feel appreciated for theirgood work. Lastly, a physical therapy is more intellectual, medicaland health-based (Fair,2011).&nbsp


Fair,S. E. (2011).&nbspWellnessand physical therapy.Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.Lutz, C. A., Mazur, E., &ampLitch, N. A. (2015).&nbspNutritionand diet therapy.

Competency in Basic Nursing Skills A Concept Analysis


Carolyn Brown

Lamar University

Theoretical Foundations


Dr. Stacey Knight

June 19, 2016


Competency has become one ofthe most relevant concepts in all professions. Analyzing andunderstanding the concept of competency is important because it willhelp nurses address challenges and changes that are emerging in thehealth care sector. Previous studies have shown that competency ischaracterized by the use of the latest scientific evidence andinnovative strategies to enhance efficiency, quality of care, patientsafety, and treatment outcome. Some of the key defining attributes ofthe concept of competency include knowledge, personal initiative,ethics, and self-reflection. Antecedents of the concept of competencyin nursing include reforms in nurse educational programs, thewillingness to apply innovative approaches, teachers of nurses, andthe use of evidence-based practices. Its consequences include anincrease in treatment outcome, client safety, and patientsatisfaction. A structured interview with nurses can be used as aneffective tool to measure the concept of competence.

Key words: Competency,defining attributes, concept analysis, model case, antecedents,empirical referents.

Competency inBasic Nursing Skills: A Concept Analysis

Competency is among the mostrelevant concepts in the health care sector, but is barely understoodby nurses (Stevens, 2013). Therefore, the aim of this paper is toprovide a comprehensive analysis of the concept and provideinformation that can help nurses comprehend and utilize competency inaddressing emerging health care challenges and delivering qualitycare to their clients. A successful analysis of the concept will playa critical role in advancing the nurses’ understanding of theconcept and their ability to apply it in their daily practices.

For the purpose of thisanalysis I utilized a framework provided by Walker Avant (2011). This framework simplifies a complex method with eight steps which Ifollowed (a) selecting a concept, (b) defining the purpose of theanalysis, (c) defining attributes, (d) constructing a model case, (e)defining anecdotes and consequences, (f) defining empiricalreferents, (g) importance in nursing practice. (Walker &amp Avant,2011). Key words used in literature search include concept analysis,competency, basic skills, and patient safety. Definitions werecollected and reviewed from English dictionaries and internetsearches for this analysis.

Understanding the concept ofcompetency is important because the health care sector has changedsignificantly. A modern health care sector is characterized by anincrease in demand for quality care, integration of technology intohealth care practices, an emphasis on the importance of usingevidence-based practices, and the emergence of new medical challenges(Stevens, 2013). By understanding the concept of competency, nurseswill be able to address the new trends.

The concept of competency hasnumerous uses in the health care sector. The concept can be used todescribe the ability of nurses to deliver services that meet thespecific expectations of clients, indicate the capacity to deal withnew health-related challenges, the use of innovative strategies toenhance efficiency, and application of the latest scientific evidenceto inform the process of delivering health care (Stevens, 2013).

Literature Review

The call for competency in thehealth care sector underscores the need to use o innovativeapproaches in delivering health care services. According to Akenroye&amp Kuenne (2015) application of innovative techniques is among thekey feature of a competent nurse. Innovation helps health careprofessionals in addressing emerging challenges using the mosteffective diagnosis, treatment, and other therapeutic procedures.Innovative approaches are characterized by collaboration,cooperation, effective leadership, and knowledge management (Akenroye&amp Kuenne, 2015). The use of innovative strategies should beencouraged in the nursing schools in order to prepare graduates for adynamic working environment (Edwards &amp O’Connor, 2011). Theability of competent nurses to apply innovation in their dailypractices enhances their effectiveness, quality of care, and clientsatisfaction.

Collaboration among the healthcare professionals and reforms in the nursing educational programsplay a critical role of advancing competency. The formation ofinter-professional teams facilitates the process of sharing researchfindings among the health care professionals, which leads to adoptionof evidence-based practices. According to Stevens (2013) competencythat is derived from evidence-based practices focuses on theutilization of knowledge in facilitating clinical decision making.This enhances the quality of health care services. This type ofcompetency helps the health care professionals adopts practices thatare consistent with the current knowledge.

Although the need to embracecompetency is emphasized in nearly all fields of profession, theprocess of producing competent employees starts from the institutionsof learning. Educational reforms that lead to the development of acomprehensive and up-to-date curriculum produce graduates who arecompetent. A study conducted in the field of psychology revealed thata training curriculum influences the quality of graduates and theirability to demonstrate competency when they join the labor market(Hunsley &ampBarker, 2011). Therefore, the level of competency of anindividual employee can be traced back to college.

Defining Attributes

Personal initiative is acrucial attribute in nursing competency. As most nurses workautonomously, it is up to the individual’s own ethics to ensureproficiency in skills and patient safety. As skills are updated,changed or revised, nurses have the responsibility to stay abreast ofthese variables to enhance safely. Who is better to take initiativesfor patients than the nurses, who are the first ones to recognizechanges in our patients?

Knowledge is anotherattribute in the competency of nursing skills. Nurses are testedassessed, evaluated and monitored on a regular basis. Without thecontinuity of education, nurses may be unaware of changes in basicskills. Yet, as an evidenced based practice nursing skills areconstantly being revised. It may well be that some of the unitmeetings should be centered on updates of skills to ensure staff isinformed and updated with any revisions. Many nurses are stillpracticing the way they learned no matter how outdated their practicemay be.

Ethics in practice is ofutmost importance in nursing competencies. Any breach in protocolmay result in a sentinel event. It is critical that the skill beretaught, reassessed, and evaluated for competency, accuracy andproficiency.

Self-reflection is essentialin any concept of change. Most people do not like any simulation ofchange, unless it is for their own good. As nurses give care toothers, it is imperative that updates or changes in basic nursingskills be initiated once noticed. It can be uncomfortable to adapt tothese changes, but for patient safety all must comply.

Model Cases

Model cases are used todefine and explain concepts as they would appear in real worldsituations. The concept of competency will be analyzed using a modelcase, a borderline case and a contrary case. These cases willillustrate the application of different attributes of competency(Walker &amp Avant, 2011).

A student nurse teaching along time nurse on a unit of a change in a basic nursing skillillustrate a new method of drug administration. The student and theinstructor entered the room with the Registered Nurse to give aLovenox injection. The Registered nurse went to pull up themedication on the electronic health record. The nurse asked thestudent to choose the abdomen as the site of the injection. Thestudent looked at the instructor and said, “I thought Lovenox wasnow to be given in the love handles as we were taught to remember itby L for love handles, and I cannot chart the site until theinjection is actually given”. After verification of correctness bythe instructor, the Registered nurse said that she was unaware of thechange in injection site for that medication. After verification thestudent, instructor, and the Registered Nurse all agreed that thesite to be documented would be subcutaneous, which was recommended bythe manufacturer, instead of the abdomen. The next day theRegistered nurse was found instructing other nurses as well asstudents in the proper administration of the medication Lovenox. Theregistered nurses demonstrated the importance of personal initiative,knowledge, ethics, and self-reflection regarding changes in basicnursing skills, all of which are the key attributes of the concept ofcompetency that enhance the safety of patients.

Borderline case

A borderline case is similarto a model case, but it lacks some attributes of the concept that isbeing analyzed (Walker &amp Avant, 2011). A student nurse was aboutto perform an indwelling Foley catheter. As the student opened thesterile package and started preparing for the procedure the emergencyroom (ER) nurse reminded her to test the balloon. The instructoradvised the nurse that the testing of the balloon was no longerrequired, as per the findings of studies developed from evidencedbased-based practices. However, the ER nurse said that she could notunderstand that and would much rather know about a problem with theballoon before it was inserted instead of after. She came out of thepatient’s room complaining to the other nurses saying that shewould continue to test the balloon regardless of the changes in theskill requirements. She decided not to take the initiative and foundno problem in the ethics of her decision, continuing the skill as shehas learned it. The nurse acquired the new knowledge, but failed totake an initiative to put into practice.

Contrary case

A contrary case fails to meetany of the attributes of the concept that is being analyzed (Walker &ampAvant, 2011). I went with my sister to the emergency room oneafternoon as she was suffering from a bowel obstruction. As a nurse,I noticed the emergency room nurse inserting the nasal gastric tubewith incorrect placement measurements. I was promptly asked to leavethe room while the skill was completed. No follow up x-ray was donefor accurate placement assessment. As my sister remained on a nothingby mouth status (NPO), in preparation for her surgical procedure thenursing staff emptied suction container as my sister became weakerand weaker from dehydration. When the provider made the rounds andwas notified of the problem, placement of the nasogastric tube waschecked and verified to be in the small intestine. Because the nursefailed to perform a basic nursing skill with competence a patientsuffered unnecessarily. This case contained none of the attributesidentified in the competency in basic nursing skills concept, andcaused harm to a patient as a result.

Antecedents and consequences

The term “antecedents”refers to events that take place just before the occurrence of agiven concept. The word “consequences”, on the other hand, isused to describe the results that can be directly attributed to theoccurrence of the concept (Hunsley &ampBarker, 2011). The keyantecedents of the concept of competency in nursing include reformsin nurse educational programs, teachers of nurses, the willingness toapply innovative approaches, and adoption of evidence-based practices(Stevens, 2013). The willingness of individual nurses to applyinnovative approaches in their practice is associated with anincrease in knowledge, skills, and efficiency, all of which enhancethe competency of the health care professional. Educational programsare significant tools that are used to prepare nurses before theystart practicing. A review of these programs in order to include theideas of safe, effective, and efficient service delivery help nursesdemonstrate a high level of competency.

Some of the key consequencesof embracing competency in the field of nursing include animprovement in patient outcome, patient safety, quality, efficiency,and patient satisfaction in the delivery of health care services(Stevens, 2013). Competent nurses possess skills that allow them todeliver health care services that address the specific health careissues that they clients are facing. In addition, the ability ofcompetent nurses to apply evidence-based results in a decline incases of medical errors, which enhances the treatment outcome, clientsafety, and patient satisfaction (Stevens, 2013). Innovativeapproaches help competent nurses deliver health care services in amore efficient way.

Empirical referents

The term “empiricalreferents” describe processes that the stakeholders in the field ofnursing use to measure the concept of competency. Approaches that areutilized in the measurement of competency should be valid, reliable,comprehensive, and objective. However, studies have shown that thereis a limitation in the number of measurement tools that can be usedto measure the gap between nurse education and practice, which is asignificant challenge facing the stakeholders in the field of nursing(Stevens, 2013). For example, the process of using portfolios toillustrate ongoing competency does not have a well defined referentfor competency. This shortage justifies the need for the developmentof measurement processes by which the portfolios can be evaluated andstandardized in order to provide measurable results.

The current body of literaturesuggests that the use of nursing outcomes as the foundation offoundation of competency-based curriculum for undergraduate canresult in more objective measurement.

Similarly, a consideration ofa set of progressive difficult skills in a given semester contributestowards objective measurement of competency (Stevens, 2013). Astructured interview is an effective tool that can help thestakeholders in the health sector measure competency moreobjectively. The tool captures all the skills (including patientcare, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, system-basedpractice, level of professionalism, and medical management) thatcharacterize a competent nurse. The inclusion of a wide range ofskills increases objectivity in the process of measuring the conceptof competency.

Application of the concept ofcompetency in evidence-based practice

The concept will be used toassess the nurse’s ability to meet the three competency standards,including professional practice, critical thinking as well asanalysis, and collaborative and therapeutic practice. The standard orprofessional practice will guide and measure the ability of a nurseto carry out their professional, ethical, and legal responsibilitiesin a manner that demonstrates accountability for practice,satisfactory knowledge base, and constancy of practices with the law(Grealish, 2014). Key indicators of professional practice standardinclude compliance with legislations that regulate the field ofnursing and ability to practice within a professional framework.

The standard of criticalthinking and analysis, which relates to the value of evidence,professional development, and self-appraisal, will help the nurseapplying evidence-based practices on a daily basis. Criticalthinking, which is among the key elements of competency, will bedemonstrated by the ability to operate within the evidence-basedframework, the use of research to enhance health outcomes,application of the best evidence as well as nursing expertise, andthe utilization of analytical skills to assess the quality ofavailable health information before using it to guide the process ofdelivering health care to patients (Grealish, 2014). In this context,the concept of competency will be used to guide the process ofsourcing, evaluating, and applying available research evidence toenhance the health of patients.

Competent nurses understandthe significance of establishing therapeutic relationships that arewithin professional boundaries. The concept of competency will beused as a guiding in the process of establishing interdisciplinaryteams within the health care setting and helping members of the teamestablish a goal-oriented relationship (Grealish, 2014). A successfulcollaboration among members of the health care team will require eachof them to apply effective communication, support each other inmaking informed decisions, and work together to inform the process ofpolicy development. This collaboration will create an environment inwhich health care professionals (including nurses) can share thelatest evidence that can inform their daily practices.

However, the process ofadopting evidence-based practices in the health care setting willrequire the change of attitude and traditional way of deliveringhealth care services. Based on Kant Lewin’s theory of change, itcan be predicted that the process of change will face restrainingforces, such as resistance from other health care professionals.Restraining forces come from individuals who prefer the status quo tochange, which is attributed to the fear of the unknown (Alligood,2014).Therefore, a change towards the adoption of evidence-based practiceswill be done progressively, using the three steps provided by Lewin’stheory of change. The first step, also referred to as unfreezing,will involve preparation of health care professionals to accept thefact that change is necessary. Preparation will be achieved byinforming the health care professionals about the importance ofembracing evidence-based practices and their potential benefits, suchas an increase in the quality of care, patient outcome, and clientsatisfaction (Sarayreh, Khudair, &amp Barakat, 2013).

The second step, moving to thenew level, will involve the actual adoption and utilization of theevidence-based competencies in an effort to enhance competency.Effective communication will facilitate the process of informing thestakeholders about the progress of change and helping them feelhighly connected to each other (Sarayreh, Khudair, &amp Barakat,2013). Platforms for sharing latest evidence in the field of healthcare will be created. For example, the establishment of a journalclub will help the health care professionals meet regularly to reviewjournal articles that have been published recently.

The third step, refreezing,will involve the process of ensuring that the health careprofessionals start considering evidence-based practices as part oftheir everyday business (Sarayreh, Khudair, &amp Barakat, 2013).This will be followed by the process of adjusting the standardoperating procedures and policies in order to ensure that the conceptof competency and the idea of evidence-based practices areinstitutionalized and integrated into organizational culture.


Competency is a challengingand exciting concept in nursing that help the health careprofessionals deal with emerging health care challenges. Competencyamong nurses can be enhanced through reforms in nursing educationalprograms, application of innovative approaches, adoption ofevidence-based practices, and transformative leadership. Theimportance of the concept of competency should be emphasized rightfrom the nursing schools to the workplaces where it is practiced inreal-life scenarios. Competent nurses should be able to demonstrate awide range of skills, including the ability collaborate withprofessionals from other health units, analyze research evidencecritically, and apply the scientific research in daily activities. Asuccessful application of the concept of competency in the healthcare sector leads to an increase in efficiency, patient outcome,client satisfaction, and the overall quality of care.


Akenroye, O. &amp Kuenne, W.(2015). Key competencies for promoting service innovation: What areimplications for the health sector? TheInnovation Journal,20 (1), 1-21.

Alligood,M. R. (2014). Nursing theory:Utilization and application (5th ed.).St. Louis, MO.: Mosby Elsevier. ISBN: 978-0-323-09189-3.

Edwards, J. &amp O’Connor,A. (2011). Improving technological competency in nursing students:The passport project. TheJournal of Educators Online,8 (2), 1-20.

Grealish, L. (2014). Howcompetency standards became the preferred national technology forclassifying nursing performance in Australia. AustralianJournal of Advanced Nursing,30 (2), 20-31.

Hunsley, J. &ampBarker, K.(2011). Training for competency in professional psychology: ACanadian perspective. AustralianPsychologist, 46,142-145.

Sarayreh, B., Khudair, H. &ampBarakat, E. (2013). Comparative study: The Kurt Lewin of changemanagement. InternationalJournal of Computer and Information Technology,2 (4), 1-4.

Stevens, K. (2013). The impactof evidence-based practice in nursing and the next big ideas. OnlineJournal of Issues in Nursing,18, 1.

Walker, L. O., &ampAvant, K. C. (2011). Review of the book Strategies for theoryconstruction in nursing (5th ed.). New Jersey:Prentice Hall


Theobjective of the deregulated power industry in California was toallow producers to sell any quantity of electricity that theavailable traffic could bear. It attempted to deliver cheaper andcleaner energy. Unfortunately, the state was faced with the shortageof electricity that the governor was forced to rethink concerningother means of sourcing electricity (Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).Theapparent shortage as a result of failed system has proved to behighly lucrative to power firms, which raises a notion of industrymanipulation.

InadequateHydroelectric Power resources

Inthis first dimension, the California Power Administration played amajor role by lowering the quantity of power served to theNorthwester parts of the state. During this moment, the directutility contracts with the organization were planned to expire in2001. The implication was that neither the commission nor theconsumers were sure of the body that would take over theresponsibility of ending the electricity crisis. Eventually,California was in a situation where it has to acquire an additional3,350 megawatts within a short time but with enormously high prices(Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).

Asa result, the reduced power generation impacted both the Northwestand Southwest California. Average exports from the two sides werereduced by almost 2,710 megawatts in 2001 as opposed to the precedingthree years. The conditions in the California market power elicitedmore consumer good crisis leading to a disturbed economy. Moreover,the gap between supply and demand of power broadened progressivelythrough the subsequent years (Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).Essentially, the amount that had to be used in case of thederegulation was seen to be nearly enough megawatts for twometropolises.

&quotGaming&quotof the system

Thesecond contributing factor to the failure of the deregulation wasinitiated by Californian politicians. The leading class held thebelief that best way that they could follow to solve the electricityfunding issue was through the addition taxes. In other words, theysaw the need to apply new protocols on taxpayers. However, this was aviewpoint that in the end made the system more complicated andproblematic (Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).

Onthe contrary, instead of easing the deregulation process, the hikedtaxes made the citizens to spend even more money in the acquisitionof electricity. It was believed that this could continue for a shorttime, but it never ceased. Furthermore, even hospitals and othersensitive services that depended on electricity were drasticallyaffected hence the government had to promptly halt the deregulationprocedures. As a result, the deregulation failed because ofpolitician’s gaming culture (Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).


Californiastarted suffering a serious shortage of energy by the onset of the2000 summer. The shortage went on until 2001 and during thisduration, brownouts and blackouts became very frequent in severalregions of the state and the adjacent regions. The problems gave theimpression that it started with the deregulation process of theelectrical power industry (Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).

TheApril summers were typical features during this phase. However, itbecame severe leading to global warming that offset unusual warmweathers. As a result, the event that seemed to be a mere summer,after being associated with the deregulation, led to the revocationof the whole process (Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).

Upuntil now, advocates of regulatory approaches argue that thechallenges facing California are the outcome of a poordecision-making process. Such debates also focus on whether theCalifornian energy crisis is caused by firms in an attempt toincrease their profits. The FERC has issued a policy proposing thatprice manipulation should not be done by producers without federalinvolvement (Anderson&amp Fouad, 2008).


Anderson,P. M., &amp Fouad, A. A. (2008).&nbspPowersystem control and stability.John Wiley &amp Sons.