Cigarettesmoking is harmful to the body, and this can be a candid reason forthe lower grades among the college students for the smokers comparedto non-smokers. First, cigarette smoking is addictive, and thisaddiction has effects on students (Jackson &amp Aveyard, 2008).Students who are addicted have to skip classes to go and smoke, asthey cannot sit in a class for even an hour without smoking. Skippingclasses translate to poor grades as the students lack a proper graspof content owing to inconsistency. Additionally, cigarette smokinghas an effect on the concentration of students. The cigar is astimulant and has an effect on the concentration and performance ofstudents. When smoking, the normal operation of the human body isinterfered with and hence effect on the productivity level (Reed etal., 2007). Reduction in productivity level means that studentscannot perform at their optimum level. This has an effect on theperformance of the students. This explains the reason why smokershave lower grades compared to non-smokers. On the other hand, thenon-smokers are always alert and have higher levels of concentration.

Indeed,it was wrong for the researchers to use the non-experimental methodto carry out their research, as it would not provide causation. Themethod employed was observational and comparative descriptive method,which is the wrong method. To show causation in a study, theresearcher is encouraged to employ the experimental study (Spencer,Zanna &amp Fong, 2005). Using the experimental study requires thatthere be a random selection of a group that smoke cigarettes and theother are a group that does not smoke. Nonetheless, the study carriedout will only be limited to students who are at the same study level.This means that the study has to set out the delimitations underwhich it is done. Nonetheless, this type of experimental study is notencouraged as it has significant ethical and practical implications.


Jackson,D., &amp Aveyard, P. (2008). Waterpipe smoking in students:prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake.Evidence from one British university.&nbspBMCpublic health,&nbsp8(1),1.

Reed,M. B., Wang, R., Shillington, A. M., Clapp, J. D., &amp Lange, J. E.(2007). The relationship between alcohol use and cigarette smoking ina sample of undergraduate college students.&nbspAddictivebehaviors,&nbsp32(3),449-464.

Spencer,S. J., Zanna, M. P., &amp Fong, G. T. (2005). Establishing a causalchain: why experiments are often more effective than mediationalanalyses in examining psychological processes.&nbspJournalof personality and social psychology,&nbsp89(6),845.