ARTICLE CRITIQUE 1
The purpose ofthe study is to analyze the balance and distribution of energyassociated with cases of low-grade inflammation (Bawadi, Katkhiuda,Al-Haifi, Tayyem, Elkhoury, & Jamal, 2016). The study focuses onpatients with type 2 diabetes. Previous studies had proved that minorinflammations contributed to the pathogenesis of diabetes throughbeta cell apoptosis (Bawadi et al., 2016). The research questionseeks to answer whether macronutrient distribution and energy balancehave a significant impact on the levels of C-reactive protein amongpatients with diabetes (Bawadi et al., 2016). In this regard, thenull hypothesis supposes that energy balance has no effect on theinflammatory processes prevalent in type 2 diabetes.
The methodologyfeatured a cross-sectional study involving 198 patients diagnosedwith type 2 diabetes (Bawadi et al., 2016). Initially, 1,500 patientshad been earmarked for the research. However, the application ofparticular exclusion criteria trimmed the number by 87%. Femalescomprised 63.1% of the pool of patients (Bawadi et al., 2016). Thestudy measured various parameters such as macronutrient and energyintake, truncal fat percent, total body fat, waist circumference,height, and weight (Bawadi et al., 2016). All measurements were takenaccording to the guidelines established by the World HealthOrganization (WHO). Furthermore, specimens of venous blood wereobtained from the patients. Consequently, the data was analyzed todetermine the serum amounts of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP) (Bawadi et al., 2016). Also, further analysis was used toreveal the levels of HbAIc.
The resultsindicate that energy balance had positive correlations with HbAIc andhs-CRP. Besides, energy balance was directly proportional to truncalfat percent and body waist circumference (Bawadi et al., 2016).Moreover, the study discovered that percent energy from proteins andfat had correlations with higher levels of hs-CRP. Nonetheless,percent energy from carbohydrates lacked the same property.Therefore, the study showed that increased intake of energy, fat, andproteins led to elevated levels of hs-CRP (Bawadi et al., 2016).
The problem hasbeen clearly stated before the experimental section. It is alsopractically relevant since it concerns patients with type 2 diabetes.The aim of the research is to probe the impact of energy balance onthe levels of hs-CRP (Bawadi et al., 2016). In this respect, the nullhypothesis assumes that energy balance has no impact on the amountsof C-reactive proteins. Notably, keywords are identified but notdefined. Besides, the study is limited in that predictive equationswere used to calculate energy expenditure (Bawadi et al., 2016).Moreover, the study failed to examine the direct relationship betweenmacronutrient distribution and energy intake (Bawadi et al., 2016).The article was educational in that it sought to define newrelationships between inflammation and energy consumption.
The cited sourcesare relevant to the study since they provide background informationon obesity-related illnesses such as diabetes. Nevertheless, thereview is too narrow since it excludes the interrelationship betweenmacronutrient distribution and energy intake along with inflammation.The article uses relatively recent sources published in the period2000-2015. The central concept of the article concerns macronutrientdistribution and energy intake. Supporting ideas include HbAIc andC-reactive protein levels.
The methodologyused in the research focused on a cross-sectional study of 198patients (Bawadi et al., 2016). All the participants fulfilled thestringent measures stipulated in the exclusion criteria. Althoughprevious studies had investigated the relationship betweeninflammation and diabetes, the current research was original in thatit focused on a unique area. The study used measurement tools derivedfrom the World Health Organization. Besides, a measuring rod was usedto measure the patients’ height (Bawadi et al., 2016). The researchprocedures were structured in that obtained measurements were used tocalculate other values. For example, blood specimens were used todetermine the quantities of HbAIc and C-reactive proteins.
Granted, a pilotstudy was not conducted due to the targeted nature of the research.The variables used in the survey include gender, diabetes duration,years of formal education, and years treated with insulin. Othervariables measure the mean percentages of body fat, truncal fat, andenergy from fat and proteins (Bawadi et al., 2016). Sampling wasperformed using particular criteria to sift the original number of1,500 patients with type 2 diabetes. Some of the excluded patientshad recent surgeries while others had been diagnosed for less than ayear (Bawadi et al., 2016). The study design and methods areappropriate for the study since they evaluate the impact of energyintake.
Data Analysis andPresentation
The data was analyzed after making adjustments for covariates such astruncal fat, total body fat, and body mass index (Bawadi et al.,2016). The data was also quantitative since it presented exactfigures as opposed to descriptive information. Indeed, the findingssupported the hypothesis and purpose since they showed thatmacronutrient distribution and energy balance had a positive effecton the levels of hs-CRP and HbAIc (Bawadi et al., 2016). Nonetheless,several weaknesses were highlighted with regards to thecross-sectional nature of the study. Notwithstanding, the researchersmanaged to answer the proposed questions.
The conclusionspresented by the authors are related to the original purpose of thestudy. The implications were fairly discussed to show the relevanceof the information to researchers and patients with diabetes.Subsequently, the authors recommended that dietary interventions beused for the case of patients with weak glycemic control (Bawadi etal., 2016). The authors presented the strengths and weakness of thestudy along with useful recommendations for diabetes patients.Therefore, their initial purpose of weighing the impact of energyintake was achieved.
The article wasquite informative as it overemphasized the effects of energy intakein diabetes patients. The statements are clear with no instances ofambiguity. Indeed, the authors succeeded in answering the researchquestion using data analysis.
Bawadi, H., Katkhiuda, R., Al-Haifi, A.M., Tayyem, R., Elkhoury, C.F., & Jamal, Z. (2016). Energy balance and macronutrientdistribution in relation to C-reactive protein and HbA1c levels amongpatients with type 2 diabetes. Food & Nutrition Research, 60,29904. doi:10.3402/fnr.v60.29904