Q.1The total resistance is 30a)Values for the R1, R2, R3

SinceR1 + R2 + R3 = Total Resistance – R4 = 30 – 10 = 20

Becausethe current I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 = I in this circuit

Inthe same regard, R1/V1 = R2/V2 = R3/V3

V1-5 =I1*R1, V2 = 8 =I2*R2,

V3= 7 = I3*R3

V4=I4*10Ω= ?

Therefore,the ratio of three Resistances

5/I+ 8/I + 7/I = 20, we can therefore find I = 1A

AndV4 = 1A*10 Ω = 10V

Thus,R1=5 Ω

R2=8 Ω

R3=7 Ω

b.Value of Current

  1. 1/R = 1/R2 + 1/R1

Therefore,1/R = 1/4 + 1/8, = 3/8

R=2.67 Ω

  1. So Total V =IxR = 3×2.67 = 8V





  1. 1/R = ¼ + 1/(4+4), R = 2.67 Ω

  2. 1/(1/4 + ¼) + 2 Ω = R = 2 Ω + 2 Ω = 4 Ω

  3. 1/R = ¼ + ¼ + ¼ = R= 1.33 Ω


Dopingis described as the process of adding impurities to the intrinsicsemiconductors in a bid to alter their functioning properties. Inessence, it is the changing or adding impurities to the semiconductoras a whole to enhance efficiency by receiving or sending a charge tothe atoms. As a result of the Octet rule, the particles are usuallystable when 8 electrons exist in their valence. When the elements intheir respective lattice are changed, the process is referred to asdopingthe lattice with another item and therefore changing its property.For instance, doping Germanium and Silicon with Pentavalent andTrivalent elements does the frequent variations in the lattice.Doping needs a clean room since that environment is entirelycontrolled to reduce all dirt and dust since a single speck candamage the project. Clean room environment are imperative for dopingsince the devices for doping are precise. In essence, a single speckof dust could alter the whole project and thus ruin it (Lin,2012).

Q3.Lithography and Moore’s Law

Lithographyis a Greek term implying graphic and stones. In literal terms, itmeans to write on stones. Based on semiconductor lithography, thestones are silicon wafers while the patterns are printed with apolymer that is sensitive to light. The endeavor for an efficientlithography enhances advanced productivity from the exposure devicesand higher power from the source of light whether it is LPP EUVsource or from a laser. Excimer laser performance and power haveplayed an imperative role and enhanced the productivity oflithography extensibility and productivity over the past twentyyears. A thriving growth of the present EUV LPP technology source isthe beginning of a similar expedition from growth to the massivevolume that will enhance extension of Moore law. Lithography offerssimpler processes such as large k-factor, single exposure and greaterdepth of focus (Lin, 2012).


TheCisco system is a multinational corporation located in San Jose,America. The company assembles models and vends networking tools. Thestock attached to the industrial average of Dow Jones on 2009, wasalso inclusive in the Russell 1000 index S&ampP 500 Index, Russell1000 Stock Growth, and NASDAQ 100 Index (Fortune&amp Mitchell, 2012).To ascertain a key point where CISCO rose to &quotinfluence theinternet,&quot the exceptional internet growth in the mid to late90s altered the telecommunication field. As the IP became adoptedextensively, the significance of the &quotMultiprotocol routingsubsided. However, Cisco was able to grasp the wave of the web withproducts extending from core GSR routers to modem access shelves(AS5200) that quickly became an imperative to ISP and in 1998,bestowed Cisco the monopoly. At the peak of the dot-com era, Ciscobecame a valuable company globally. From 2013, Cisco initiated itsrebranding strategy. These efforts were aimed at putting Cisco at acompetitive edge for the next ten years linking the previousaddresses that were unconnected and enhance connectivity of IPprocesses (Fortune&amp Mitchell, 2012).


Lin,B. J. (2012, March). Lithography till the end of Moore`s law.InProceedingsof the 2012 ACM international symposium on International Symposium onPhysical Design&nbsp(pp.1-2). ACM

Fortune,A., &amp Mitchell, W. (2012). Unpacking firm exit at the firm andindustry levels: The adaptation and selection of firmcapabilities.&nbspStrategicManagement Journal,&nbsp33(7),794-819