CareerMaturity in Black Male Athletes

Outline

Abstract 3

Introduction 4

Research Questions 5

Background 5

Major Arguments 6

Athletic Identity 6

Career-related Distress 9

Career maturity 11

The Athletic Academic Advisors (AAA) 13

African American Men in Higher Education 14

Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs) compared to Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) 15

Discussion 15

Conclusion 17

Annotated Bibliography 18

References 22

Abstract

Thoughscholars have dwelled on the relations between career maturity andcareer decisions, much has not been provided regarding maturity amongblack male athletes. Various researchers have illustrated theconnection between career-choice self-efficacy and maturity amongcollege students. However, they have not provided adequate data aboutcareer maturity among the black male athletes. Some have gone as faras relating the above aspects with self-advocacy. In that regard,this particular study focuses on the career maturity among black maleathletes. Apart from that, it investigates the disparity betweenstudent and athletic identities. The rate at which black men andwomen indulge in sports is quite high. As a matter of fact, studieshave shown that most black men are involved in sports such asfootball and basketball. Degree-seeking individuals are minute ascompared to those involved in sports. Based on such facts, scholarshave provided detailed information on the participation of blackathletes in sports. The findings tend to correlate with each other,hence, suggesting that soon sporting events will be entirelydominated by black athletes. However, most studies fail to relay therelation between career maturity and black male athletes. Though bothwomen and men are involved in these sporting events, it is quiteevident that the black males dominate the sporting sector. Someresearchers have called for accountability and transparency inawareness of this fact. This article offers pragmatic support to thenotion that the athletes might be marginally disadvantaged in aregion critical to the education system. The disadvantages can thwartthe students from developing an alternative career choice if thesporting career does not materialize. However, introducing a detailedintervention agenda once a student enters college may assist theathletes to make appropriate career plans and hence have a broaderrange of choices upon graduation.

Introduction

Careermaturity is regarded as the readiness of a person to deal withdevelopmental functions which are expected of him/her by society. Itinvolves making appropriate decisions concerning practical careerchoices. As affirmed by Super (1990), student-athletes who indulgedin extensive sporting programs did not have the ability to constructconcrete career plans. As compared to the rest of the students, sucha group could make viable decisions regarding their educationalplans.

Asportrayed by statistics, the majority of the student-athletes wouldretire from their sport and enter the job markets due to limitedabsorption into the professional sports. For example, as recorded bythe National Collegiate Athletic Association, very few students getabsorbed. To be precise only, 1.2 percent joined men’s basketball,1 percent women’s basketball, 9.4 percent baseball, 1.7 percentmen’s soccer, 3.7 percent for men’s ice hockey, and 1.8 percentfootball.

Informationon the psychological and athletic growth of the athletes has not beenthoroughly examined. Hence, a clear impact cannot be efficientlydelivered. The aim of this study is to provide the relation betweenathletic identity and student identity. As mentioned above, theathletic identity tends to outweigh student personality. It will alsofocus on the development of student identity in male collegiateathletes. From the definition of career maturity, it is evident thatmany students lack the basic requirements of making necessarydecisions. Black male athletes are, therefore, not an exception. Thispaper will focus on the maturity levels of athletes and non-athletesas well as the psychological issues affecting their choices.

ResearchQuestions

Whatis the relation between athletic identity and academic excellence?

Whatare the effects of strong athletic identity on career maturity?

Whatis the relation between career maturity and black male athletes?

Background

Student-athletesface numerous challenges ranging from professional, social,psychological, and financial constraints as they go through theirstudies. Ferrante, Lantz, and Etzel (2002) affirmed that demandsbestowed upon the intercollegiate athletes surpass their non-athletecounterparts. The collaborative and mutual nature of athleticidentity, career maturity, and career-related distress must be takeninto consideration when designing an approach for intercollegiatestudent-athlete experiences. It is evident that when more than twopressures coexist compliance with either role becomes difficult. Forinstance, balancing of athletic and academic demands amongintercollegiate is a difficult undertaking. Athletes that focussolely on sports tend to possess a self-concept that is limited togames. They cannot indulge in other developments besides sports. Inmany cases, the athletic identity tends to overshadow the studentidentity (Heller, 2008, p. 1).

Educationistspropose that athletic identity is important to comprehend the careerdecision-making procedure among college student athletes. This isbecause students with athletic roles are less likely to try othercareers, lifestyles, or education options. An athletic identity canbe described as the ability of an individual to relate to athleticroles like social, cognitive, behavioral, and affective concomitants.Further studies suggest that athletes are an endangered species,especially in the transition stages. The emotional and physicalinvestments in sport drain them completely, leaving them withoutenergy to pursue other things like indulging in developmentalactivities or creating a non-sporting personality. Career-relatedstresses can deter student-athletes from making career-relateddecisions such as selecting other career options. The stresses areconcerning thoughts and emotions required when making careerdecisions. Student-athletes ought to take into consideration thefuture career objectives. As Leonard (1996) states, it is hard to seehigh school athletes playing basketball, baseball, ice hockey, andfootball at higher levels. Findings of scholars also suggest that thecurrent structure in colleges contributes hugely to the poor academicperformance. It, therefore, compromises the student-athlete aptitudeto finish college and get a degree or even job opportunities.

MajorArguments

Theprimary arguments are based on the impact of the different aspects ofsports on career maturity or rather academic excellence. In thissection, the paper will show that a strong athletic identity impactsnegatively on academic excellence. Student-athletes also facenumerous challenges when making career choices. There is a notionthat student-athletes tend to make poor career choices as compared totheir non-athlete counterparts. This section will define differentterms and show how they relate to career maturity.

AthleticIdentity

Asdescribed by Brewer and Petitpas (2000), athletic identity orpersonality is the athletic part of a multidimensional self-concept.It is a state whereby a person realizes his/her athlete role,including behavioral, social concomitants, affective, and cognitiveresponsibilities. Though a solid athletic identity contributesimmensely towards athletics success, it has been known to impactnegatively on academic success especially among collegiatestudent-athletes. Settles et al. (2004), echoes this sentiment bysuggesting that an athletic identity can cause emotional disordersduring career transitions (Heller, 2008).

Accordingto a study conducted by Good, Petitpas, and Brewer, et al. athleticidentity incremented considerably as the level of involvement insport increased. As per the foreclosure scores, they tend todecrement as the class status progressed. However, the score tends toincrease with heightened participation in sports. The study was doneto examine involvement in sport, athletic identity, and identityforeclosure (Heller, 2008).

InNCAA Division I University, an assessment was done whereby therelation between career maturity and students-athletes’ athleticidentity and identity foreclosure were compared. The findingsindicated that both identity foreclosure and athletic identity wereinversely connected to career maturity. Additionally, women showed agreater career maturity than their male counterparts. However, theidentity foreclosure and athletic identity did not vary significantlyin both genders. Non-varsity athletes had a slightly lower athleticidentity and foreclosure scores than varsity athletes. However, thenon-varsity athletes showed better career maturity than the varsityathletes. Athletes involved in revenue-generating sports had aslightly lower career maturity than those in non-revenue sports. Asillustrated by Murphy et al. athletic identity and identityforeclosure act independently and are not related to career maturity(Heller, 2008).

Anotherstudy by Settles et al. was done to ascertain the association of roleinterference and conflict separation on conflict as well as apsychological state of Division I student-athletes. Depressive andstress symptoms were exhibited in women more than their malecounterparts. Receiving aid related to athletics led to higherathletic identity, less significance in academic excellence, greaterinterference role, and high depressive symptoms. Additionally,placing athletics at the central unit resulted in putting lessimportance on educational matters, the propensity of perceiving astudent and athlete as a sole function, lower self-esteem, therefore,higher depressive and stress levels. Student – athletes who placedmuch emphasis on educational matters were likely to perceive academicand athletic as independent units. Another finding illustrated thatas more emphasis was put on sporting activities, especially revenuegenerating sports professional and academic growth was compromised.In other words, as student-athlete were engaged more on sportingmatters, their concentration on academic issues declined. They hadthe propensity to focus more on the athletic identity than inacademic excellence. In addition to that, athletic identity wasdirectly related to heightened stress levels, lower self-esteem, andincremented depressive levels. The student-athletes who put muchemphasis on athletic identity are prone to psychological problemsbrought by the ups and downs of the sporting activities. In otherwords, such students would be affected psychologically whenever theyunderperform in the fields, yet they have lessened their educationalresponsibilities. Identification with athletics impacts negatively onstudent’s abilities to perform well in class. It, therefore, leadsto reduced occupational choices upon graduation. Additionally,centralizing sports leaves the student-athletes psychologically andphysically depleted to an extent that they do not explore other areaswithin the college, leaving little room for personal development(Heller, 2008, p. 7). Black male athletes are commonly associatedwith intensive consideration of athletic events more than otherraces. The propensity to indulge in sporting events with limitedattention on academic issues results in future distresses due tolimited occupational opportunities. When they fail to succeed inathletics, they are forced to transit back to academics or othercareers. However, the process is not swift and end up sufferingpsychologically. As portrayed by various studies, the athleticidentity is mainly associated with African American students. Theyhave more urge of succeeding in the tracks to an extent that theyforget their academic responsibilities. They also do not realizeother opportunities, and once they graduate, the reality sinks in,and they are left in awe.

Career-relatedDistress

Career-relateddeficits deter the student-athlete from engaging in career-relateddecisions such as selecting a major career. Depressive and anxietysymptoms can also hinder the career development or thedecision-making procedure. Student-athletes lack interest or time toparticipate in occupational planning because they think it wouldthreaten their athletic dreams or identity. Most of them want tobecome household names by taking part in professional sports. It is adangerous thing, especially since not all of them will make it to thebasketball or football teams. They must realize that not all of themhave the ability to make it to the various teams. In that regard,they ought to engage in setting career goals. As per NCAA (2007), aslight percentage of student-athletes managed to enter professionalsports. In fact, from the college statistics, 1 percent of the womenmanaged to get into the basketball team, 1.2 percent in male’sbasketball, 1.7 percent in men’s soccer, 3.7 percent in men’s icehockey, 9.4 percent in baseball, and 1.8 percent in football. Asdepicted by these results, most of the collegiate athletes will haveto retire from the sport to take up professional careers upongraduation. African-American male student-athlete have got thehighest numbers caught-up in this situation. Lack of proper planningleads to detrimental impacts. A good number of athlete-students whofail to enter into professional sports and have no other career plansend up joining gangs in a means of making quick money.

Ina 1985 study by Blann, there is a relation between the degree ofsport and the capability of identifying career objectives. Researchto determine the levels of Division I and III are regarding careergoals, Blann realized immaturity in decision-making. The outcomesshowed that the majority of the sophomore and freshmen male athleteshad a less mature career and educational objectives as compared tonon-athletes. Additionally, both senior and junior male non-athletesformulated almost similar mature career and educational goals.However, the females had roughly similar thoughts at the junior andsenior levels in both athletes and non-athletes. They formulatedslightly similar career and educational maturity. The findings alsodisplayed that a high percentage of the male athletes consisted ofAfrican American students. The study suggested that male students whoplanned to prosper in sports were less attentive to educationalmatters. They tend to lose focus in class due to their involvement insports. The findings also showed that roughly 28 percent ofhigh-level male players planned to attain professional status ascompared to 4 percent of their female counterparts. In the lowerlevel, 10 percent of the male student-athletes expected to prosper intheir sporting activities and gain professional status as compared to0 percent of their female counterparts. Blann also theorized that aportion of the athletes would grow a realistic perception of theirprofessional potential in sports thereby leading to a heightenedfocus on educational and career matters as they near theirgraduation.

A1987 study by Kennedy and Dimick tried to illustrate the professionalsports and career maturity expectations of male student-athleteplaying basketball and football. No significant disparity wasrealized regarding career maturity concerning race. In other words,all the races showed slightly similar results about career maturitydecisions. Athletes and non-athletes had not considerable differencesregarding academic performance as showed by the G.P.A. However,non-athlete participants had much higher scores regarding careermaturity than the athletes. As per previous research, the authorsprospected that roughly 2 percent of the athletes expected to joinprofessional sports, however, only 48 percent recorded that theysupposed to join professional sports. With regards to this finding,student-athletes are well aware of the intricacy involved in enteringthe professional sport. They know how hard it is in professionalsports and hence are well prepared to transit towards otheroccupations after graduation.

Dysfunctionalcareer views can be replicated by decision-making issues, externalconflicts, and commitment anxiety. Students in college who have suchissues have the propensity of being less decisive and depressed.Hill, Milburn, and Rochlen (2004) acknowledged two kinds of clientswho look for career counseling. Firstly, those having moderate statesof career-related uncertainty, discomfort, and distress. Lastly,those having high degrees of career issues, stigma on career, andpersonal distress. The career-related stresses can jeopardize thecapability of engaging in proper decision-making.

Fora student-athlete, when a career approaches retirement, they tend tofeel fear, and anxiety. Student-athlete are a sensitive group thatneeds much care. They have high status in campus compounded withimmense pressure. They are prone to dangers of distress among otherpsychologically related ailments. They have unrealistic expectationsregarding sporting activities, but once the reality sinks in, theyare left to ponder the next move. At this juncture, most of them aretoo distressed to think clearly. As research has affirmed, a mere 1percent manages to go through screening to earn the monetarycompensation. However, a large group is left to ponder their nextoccupational agenda.

Careermaturity

Careermaturity is regarded as the readiness of a person to deal withdevelopmental functions which are expected of him/her by society. Asnoted by Super 2009, the ages between 14 and 24 are the most ideal tomake occupational choices. It is the period where most of the choicesare made regarding occupation, career opportunities among otherthings. An individual who is in high school can ascertain wherehis/her passion lies. In addition to that, he/she is well aware ofthe realistic demands of the society. The person also knows whathe/she is capable of, regarding abilities. Therefore, a person canmake informed decisions about career objectives. As portrayed bynumerous findings, students who commit to athlete roles tend toloosen their grip on career choices, lifestyle, and education. Theyare intensively involved in the sport to an extent that they do notfocus on other realistic opportunities.

DavisHill Stacia (2001) examined the career maturity levels ofnon-athletes as compared to student-athletes. In the findings, careermaturity levels of student-athletes were found to be low as comparedto non-athletes. In other words, the athletes’ career maturity wasnot as developed as non-athletes. Most of the male student-athleteexpected to progress in the professional sport. A good numberprojected to get a professional sports career in either the NationalFootball League (NFL) or the National Basketball Association (NBA).The findings showed that a higher percentage of African Americanathletes typically 77.3 percent expected to join the professionalsports as compared to only 22.7 percent of their White counterparts.The research clearly indicates that Black male athletes are moreinclined to error in career selection than their White counterparts.In addition to that, it was suggested that White athletes would makechoices that are consistent with their interest more than the Blackathletes. African American athletes are prone to make errors incareer choices more than the White athletes. The findingsconclusively stated that athletes are of the severe situationregarding the educational matter as well as critical issues. They maybe deterred from making realistic choices regarding education andcareers. They do not develop alternatives to the professional sports.The group is bound to focus solely on developing their sportingintentions disregarding educational matters. In this study, theysuggested placing detailed career involvement programs to raiseawareness among the students. The plans should be adopted in earlierstages, so that once a student joins college, he/she is wellinformed. It will boost their chances after graduation (Stacia,2001). The above findings correlate to Kennedy and Dimick’s studythat suggested male student-athletes were prone to exhibiting lowcareer maturity. It is an assertion that has been realized in manyfindings and seems to be real. Even in the current professionalsport, it is evident that African Americans are dominating almost allthe kinds of games. A worrying reality is that only a small portiongets the chance to shine in the professional sport. Most of thestudent-athlete face a daunting task of acclimatizing to therealities of life. Once there dream of going professional diminishes,they find it hard to switching focus. Black male athletes are moreprone to this danger. A good example can be drawn from the NBA sport.The majority of the players are black. Kids idolize them. At somepoint, the kids are now starting imitating them and probably long tofollow their idols’ example. As much as it seems easy, the realitymay come late to them when they realize they are not skilled enoughto make it in professional sport. Black male athletes make errors dueto the eagerness to follow in their idols footpaths.

TheAthletic Academic Advisors (AAA)

Theentire National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) should offeracademic assistance and life skills to student-athletes. Since itsinception during the 1990s, the NCAA has been tasked with ensuringDivision I schools to adhere to five commitments, i.e. athleticexcellence, community service, personal development, academicexcellence, and career development. Institutions must provide theseservices to ensure student-athletes benefit accordingly. The two coreways of providing the services include campus-wide assistance orhiring professional staff to deal with the student-athletes. Mostinstitutions prefer hiring experts since it is the most convenientchoice (O`Brien, 2012, p. 28).

Asper the National Association of Academic Advisors for Athletics’(N4A) data, most of the academic advisors, tutor coordinators,learning specialists, assistant directors, and life skill trainersare female and white ranging from 56-89 percent and 68-96 percentrespectively according to position held. 70-80 percent have master’sdegrees in various fields like sports science, counseling, andbusiness. Apart from the learning specialists, most of the otherpositions typically 63-74 percent were student-athletes while incollege. As per this data, student-athletes have the propensity ofsucceeding in various capacities if given adequate guidance.

AfricanAmerican Men in Higher Education

Thoughthe majority of academicians offering assistance to student-athletesare female and White, large portions of the African American MaleStudent-Athletes (AAMSAs) exist. Most of the support staff membershave limited knowledge of athletic identity, gender, or race. TheWhite females have not gone through training. This results in a hugedisparity are quite detrimental hence the need to educate the AAAsabout male, athletic, and racial identities. It would be beneficialin offering assistance to the students. With reference to the NCAAethnicity data in (2010b), the percentage of AAMSAs in Division I hasaugmented during the last decade. There has also been a significantrise in the number of African American male’ football as well asbasketball student-athletes. As a matter of fact, most of the DI BowlSubdivision football and basketball student-athletes are AfricanAmerican. Due to this demographic and the limited literature, it iscrucial for much work to begin in addressing these populations. Theresearch should be based on African American men population withinhigher education.

PredominantlyWhite Institutions (PWIs) compared to Historically Black Colleges andUniversities (HBCUs)

Theliterature comparing these two aspects is quite extensive. Blackstudents who join PWIs face numerous challenges as compared to theircounterparts in HBCUs. Sedlacek (1987) conducted a two-decade studyon non-cognitive variables which affect African American learners atPWIs. The review affirmed that Black students had a belief that Whitefaculties were biased against them. In addition to that, they weretroubled that very few Black staff and faculty members. According toSedlacek, many African American students within White institutionsexperienced numerous issues in athletics, residence halls, campuspolice, and fraternities. They also faced discriminations regardinginterracial dating. They had students seemed to think they were atthe wrong place. White institutions viewed them as less capable ascompared to their White counterparts. They were under enormouspressure to prove their worth within the campuses. Academically theywere under immense pressure to perform. As a matter of fact, thenotion that Black males had to be athletes was detrimental to theirlifestyles. The connotations seemed to put them at a disadvantagesince they felt inferior both economically and academically. Thisaspect affected their confidence as well as their academicperformance. As affirmed by research, African American students inWhite campuses feel dissatisfied, isolated, and prone to racism(O`Brien, 2012).

Discussion

Thefindings are quite practical on the real issues facing Black maleathletes. This research paper was specifically meant to outline thecareer maturity among African American athletes. By utilizing severalstudies, it was able to show the relation of career maturity andathletic identity as well as career related distress. Athleticidentity brings about enormous pressure that results in distresswhich in turn affect career maturity.

Conflicttypically emanates from more than two sets of pressure. When settingof pressure coexist, they can cause imbalance. For instance, whentrying to balance between athletic demands and academics,student-athletes may crumble due to the enormous pressures. Eventhough high athletic identities typify success in athletics, theymust as well hinder academic progress. As affirmed by Settles (2004),severe pressure on the two fronts may be injurious to thestudent-athlete. They are usually forced to focus less on academicmatters to withstand the athletic demands.

Thenotion that athletic identity is more crucial than student status isquite misleading. As portrayed by several studies, only a smallpercentage of student-athletes manage to go through screening to joinprofessional sports. It is normal to hear students having the zeal togo pro. However, reality shows that only a small portion realizetheir dreams of going professional. The most affected group is theAfrican-American male student-athletes. They focus on theprofessional sport to an extent that other they forget or ratherignore other aspects of career choices. A study conducted by DavisHill Stacia in 2001 showed that 77.3 percent of Black athletesexpected to join professional sports as compared to only 22.7 percentof the White students. Such anticipations leave the student-athletein distress when they do not make it through the screenings. It is afear that is shared by most of the scholars.

Thoughthe findings stated in this research paper tend to correlate, thereis still a huge disparity regarding the career maturity of black maleathletes. The studies do not give substantive evidence on the matter.However, the findings cannot be ignored since they are an accuratereplica of the current situation. It is evident that African Americanmales are widely involved in sporting matters.

Conclusion

Combiningacademic matters and sports is an intricate undertaking in anysociety. Athletic demands are quite intensive and can easily sway onefrom making academic progress. The activity does not only deplete onephysically instead, it exhausts an individual emotionally,career-wise among other detrimental impacts. However, physicalactivity is still important. It only requires a person to balanceboth academic and athletic demands. In addition to that, studentscannot achieve balance on by themselves. They need guidance fromeducators, counselors and other experts involved in academics andsports. In that regard, an efficient and comprehensive program mustbe designed to assist student – athletes in making mature decisionspertaining their careers. Empirical studies have elaborated howstudent-athletes tend to have lower levels of career maturity ascompared to their non-athletes counterparts. Chief in this issue isAfrican American male student-athletes who tend to focus more onsuccess on the tracks more than academic advancements. The propensityto focus solely on athletic matters compromises their personaldevelopment, academic progress, and occupational choices. In the end,when they lack the chance to advance in sports, detrimental issuesensue. They suffer physiologically which can lead to many othernegative impacts. In general, it is paramount for mechanisms toeducate and assist student-athlete to make logical decisions beenacted.

AnnotatedBibliography

Heller,T. L. (2008). Psychological Predictors of Career Maturity in CollegeStudent-Athletes. 1-62.

Thearticle attempts to test the correlation between role conflict,career-related distress, and athletic identity and career maturity.By sampling students from the NCAA, the article tries to illustratethe effects through individual interviews. They take views from thedifferent participants to make appropriate assumptions. The studyalso conducted tests considering gender.

NationalCollegiate Athletic Association. (2008). Welcome to the NCAACHAMPS/Life Skills Program. Retrieved from Welcome to the NCAACHAMPS/Life Skills Program:http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/ed_outreach/champs-life_skills/index.html

TheNational Collegiate Athletic Association is a body that supportsstudent-athletes. The institution provides some valuable statisticsabout student-athletes regarding race, composition in White schoolsamong others. The site offers vital information in its attempt toillustrate the impact of sport in various sporting institutions. Thebody also provides relevant insights about black composition in thedifferent sporting organizations.

O`Brien,K. M. (2012). African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity andAcademic Performance. 1-214.

KathrynMary O’Brien examines the impact of athletic identity, male, andrace on academic performance. The author conducts examinations inAfrican American Male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). She alsotries to explain the various functions of AAAs and what they need todo to improve the career maturity among student-athletes. It alsoattempts to relate the aspects involved in career decisions.

Rochlen,A. B. (2004). Examining the process and outcome of career counselingfor different types of career counseling clients. Journal of CareerDevelopment, 263-275.

Theauthors conduct experiments to identify the two kinds of careercounseling clients. In their assertions, two forms of careercounseling clients exist, i.e. those with medium levels ofcareer-related stress, uncertainty, and discomfort. The other kindinvolves clients with heightened levels of personal distress, stigma,and career issues. The more the stress, the less the chances ofmaking well-informed career choices.

Sampson,J. P. (2004). Career counseling and services: A cognitive informationprocessing approach. Belmont: Brooks/Cole.

Thework is meant to show the cognitive information processing (CIP)design for growth in a career as well as services. It intends toimprove the connection between the concept and practice in deliveringcost-effective career amenities for adults and adolescents. The worksalso tend to assist people to make the right choices pertaining theircareers. This book also provides a problem-solving design to makeskillful decision-making.

Shaun,H. W. (2013). Black Male Student-Athletes and Racial Inequities inNCAA Division/College Sports.

Thearticle illustrates the number of Black male athletes. The researchwas done to check the number of student-athletes who are involved insporting matters. It looks at the past two decades and the number ofAfrican-American males entering the sporting fields. As recorded inthis article, the numbers have been swelling annually.

Stacia,D. H. (2001). Career maturity and the black college student-athlete.

Whatthe authors aim of this research was to show the levels of careermaturity among college student-athletes. It compared the Whitestudent-athletes to their African-American counterparts regardingcareer maturity. It provides useful statistics obtained frominterviews. The Black student-athletes had lower levels of careermaturity as affirmed by this study.

Taylor,J. &amp. (2001). Career transitions among athletes: Is there lifeafter sports? Applied sports psychology: Personal growth to peakperformance, 480-496.

Taylorattempts to examine how students-athletes cope with retirement. Thetransition from a sporting career and occupational duties affectstudent-athletes immensely. They face psychological problems whenreality dawns on them. This journal article tries to illustratecareer changes, especially involving student-athletes. It also seeksto show the vital stages of making practical career decisions.

Weiss,O. (2001). Identity reinforcement in sport: International Review forthe Sociology of Sport, 393-405.

Inthis journal article, the author tries to illustrate the identityimpact on various social issues. Athletic identity has been viewed tobe detrimental to social relations. Athletes are so much involved insporting matters to an extent that their social life is affected.This article, therefore, tries to illustrate the various socialissues emanating from intense sporting activities.

Wylleman,P. &amp. (2004). A developmental perspective on transitions faced bythe athlete. Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespanperspective, 503-523.

Theauthor of this study examines the lifestyle of a typical athlete.Since the realization of sports, studies have been conducted toascertain transitions athletes face in their lifetime. Thisparticular study examines the competitive lives of athletes as wellas their transition to normality after retirement. It providesadequate data to relate to the career maturity among black athletes.

References

Heller, T. L. (2008). Psychological Predictors of Career Maturity in College Student-Athletes. 1-62.

National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2008). Welcome to the NCAA CHAMPS/Life Skills Program. Retrieved from Welcome to the NCAA CHAMPS/Life Skills Program: http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/ed_outreach/champs-life_skills/index.html

National Collegiate Athletic Association Care. (2005). NCAA career coach powered by Monster. Retrieved from NCAA career coach powered by Monster: http://content.ncaacareercoach.monster.com/career_planning

O`Brien, K. M. (2012). African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Perfomance. 1-214.

Rochlen, A. B. (2004). Examining the process and outcome of career counseling for different types of career counseling clients. . Journal of Career Development, 263-275.

Sampson, J. P. (2004). Career counseling and services: A cognitive information processing approach. Belmont: Brooks/Cole.

Settles, I. H. (2004). One role or two? The function of psychological separation in role conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology, 574-582.

Shaun, H. W. (2013). Black Male Student-Athletes and Racial Inequities in NCAA Division/College Sports.

Stacia, D. H. (2001). Career maturity and the black college student-athlete.

Taylor, J. &amp. (2001). Career transitions among athletes: Is there life after sports? Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance, 480-496.

Walker, Q. D. (2010). An Investigation of the relationship between career maturity, career decision self-efficacy, and self-avocacy of college students with and without diabilities. Iowa.

Weiss, O. (2001). Identity reinforcement in sport: . International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 393-405.

Wylleman, P. &amp. (2004). A developmental perspective on transitions faced by athlete. Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective, 503-523.