Conquestsof Alexander the Great
Conquestsof Alexander the Great
Alexanderthe Great is widely considered the most successful conqueror of alltime. His real name was Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon and as amilitary commander in the ancient history, he is famous for leadinghis army to triumph over most of the kingdoms and empires in theknown world. His conquests saw the bringing down of many nationsincluding Persia, Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria,and Mesopotamia [ CITATION New15 l 1033 ].Before his death, Alexander had expanded his territory all the way toPunjab. His exploits were felt all over the nations, and his policiesand culture were considered, and some even remained in practice for awhile. This King later returned to Babylon,where he declared himself a god but later on he developed a fever andsuccumbed to its effects at the age of 33 [ CITATION Con05 l 1033 ].This paper looks at the Legacy of Alexander the Great and thesubsequent impacts on Persia, India, and Egypt coupled with thecultural implications related to his achievements.
TheLegacy of the Empire
KingAlexander began his march by ensuring that his home place was unifiedand robust. As a seasoned warrior, his plans were focused onliberating the Greek cities from Persian rule and to punish theenemies for their deeds. One of the characteristic features ofAlexander’s empire is that unlike the Persian kingdom, whose King,Darius, did not personally lead his soldiers, Alexander himself wasthe Commander-in-Chief of his army. In the wake of his uprising, theKing made Jerusalem and Egypt surrender even without a battle andestablished the city known as Alexandria in Egypt. His invasion ofthe Persian homeland was vicious, possibly a revenge mission for thedestructions of Athens, a Greek City. Substantial evidence has beenproduced to suggest that this empire would have spread even furtherthan Western India. However, the army halted its advances for fearthat they would never return to their land and people [ CITATION New15 l 1033 ].
Aclose outlook to the character of this King is that he encouragedintermarriages between Greeks and other nations. He even practicedthis deed himself. As such, he planned a mass wedding ceremony thatincorporated the union between his people and the Persians. Ananalysis of such a move tends to suppose that his aim was to makesure that the different people from Macedonia, Greece and Asia wouldeventually be unified into one great Empire. Due to this purpose, heengaged in some of the practices of the Persians and even Asiancustoms in a quiet way, although he considered them Barbarians [ CITATION Dar12 l 1033 ].This tactical move was essential for ushering in the Hellenisticrule.
Ittook ten years for this man to conquer the “four quarters of theearth” as he proclaimed himself. A concrete structure thatdescribes this heritage was founded on the wise incorporation of thesubjects who surrendered. While other rulers might have opted todestroy the inhabitants, Alexander himself won and expanded as hemade some of the defeated population to be part and parcel of hiskingdom, to the extent that some had a place in his palace [ CITATION Con05 l 1033 ].Usingthis tactic, he was able to infiltrate through barriers that wouldhave hindered further success.
Impactsof Alexander the Great Conquests
Inthe process of his expansion, the Greek culture of Hellenism wasspread from the Mediterranean up to the Asian lands. The Greeklanguage became more pronounced and shared to the extent that it wasthe tongue used in trade and business transactions. Similarly, theart drama and philosophy became widespread in the education system.The security and stable state of the empire eliminated the fear ofattack and trade increased tremendously including the Chinese silkbusiness. Despite this excellent effect, his rule also had negativeimpacts and one of these was the growth in the slave trade. As theeconomy thrived, slavery increased and at some point, these forcedlaborers began an uprising in an attempt to liberate themselves [ CITATION Dar12 l 1033 ].
Politicalsystems and the way of the ruling also changed in Alexander’sreign. Evidence for this is provided by the fact that after hisdeath, his generals were prepared enough to divide the empire intosections that had territorial states. These generals then ruled overthese countries. These Kingdoms further moved outwards, and othernations began imitating their ruling system. One of the mostrecognized political achievements of King Alexander is thestabilization of the political Landscape in Indus River Valley. Thesteadiness of this volatile region prompted the rise of the MauryanEmpire. Similarly, political and religious change in India broughtabout the spread of Buddhism, which was also fuelled by Hellenism.Buddhism expanded and traversed many regions from India to China andother parts of Central Asia. It is believed that the personificationand representation of Buddha from symbolism into a human artifact wasan influence of both Hellenistic and Roman Art [ CITATION Dar12 l 1033 ].
InPersia, the close interaction saw the advent of adoption of Hellenismby the Persian residents. Although the King himself adopted some ofthe practices of the conquered empire, the end product of his regimesaw a fusion of cultural practices between the different people.Politics, government, and economy, were more pronounced, and theEmpire was able to sustain itself. After the death of the King, aGeneral grasped leadership and began to rule. In Egypt, the city ofAlexandria came to be known as the Center for Hellenistic sciences.Apparently, the elite astronomers, mathematicians, and otherscientific disciplines happened to have their roots in thismetropolis. The southwest Asia was not left behind in the conqueredlands. Since this city was established as the Capital, its functionremained intact for a considerable period. After his death, one ofAlexander`s generals ruled the region from Syria, Persia, and part ofIndia. Although his law did not conform to the principles of hisMaster, the legacy established by Alexander continued to thrive [ CITATION New15 l 1033 ].The people spoke many languages, and the culture was also quitediverse. Trade routes continued to widen and the economy heightened.
AlthoughAlexander the Great did not reign for a very long time, it is quiteclear that his rule led to the influence of culture, politics,religion and other practices. His famous legacy extended the Greeklanguage and activities to previously known and unknown parts of theworld. These changes continued to exist even after his death andfusion of his empire with others facilitated the development of someof the most powerful governments of the earth in the early times.Although this Monarch was known to be high tempered and extremelyviolent in some cases, he is responsible for some of the mostrecounted historical events. The question as to whether he is greator not is up to an individual to decide. Ultimately, his deeds willalways be recognized for the impacts they had on economics, trade,politics, and leadership as well as language, cultural aspects andphilosophical schools of thought. Some of the consequences of hislegacy are still present up to date.
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