EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING 3
Effectof Cigarette Smoking
Smokinghurts academic achievement due to the consequent impact of nicotineon physical and mental development. The exposure to nicotine fromcigarettes affects the development of the brain, specifically, thecognitive functions as well as the student’s behavioralrelationships, negatively. Further research indicates that smokersare associated with impaired cognitive functions, distractibility,and inattentiveness (Kawafha, 2013).
Therelationship between smoking and academic achievement isbidirectional. The deterioration of school performance and engagementin smoking are both predictive of each other. Students who performedpoorly in school are also more likely to smoke compared to theircounterparts with higher grades due to their differences in refusalself-efficacy. Consequently, students with weak academic achievementsare more apt to follow peer pressure groups into smoking. Due totheir frequent association with smokers, such students are lesslikely to resist the temptation to smoke (Lovato et al., 2012).
Accordingto Bradley and Greene (2013), students who smoke were identified toexperience memory loss and had difficulty in manipulatinginformation. The resultant poor academic achievement emanates fromthe ability of nicotine to reduce the students’ expected returnsfrom education. Tobacco consumption among students causes impairedverbal learning and reduces their ability to pay attention in classthat further affects their learning and school achievement. Studentswho engage in smoking are more likely to produce poor grades thanthose who do not smoke. Specifically, students who have lower thanaverage scores in schools are 5.4 times more likely to smokecigarettes (Bradley & Greene, 2013).
Theoutcomes from sample sizes and the statistical tests are negativelyrelated. As the sample size increases, the margin of error declines.A big sample size is associated with more information that furtherenhances the amount of data to be analyzed, which in turn, serves asa better representative of the population (Lovato et al., 2012).
Bradley,B. & Greene, A.(2013). Do health andeducation agencies in the United States share responsibility foracademic achievement and health? A review of 25 years of evidenceabout the relationship of adolescents` academic achievement andhealth behaviors. Journalof Adolescent Health,5(52), 523-532.
Kawafha,M. (2013). Factors affecting smoking and predictors of academicachievement among primary school children in Jordan. AmericanJournal of Health Sciences, 1(5),37-42.
Lovato,C., Watts, A., Campbell, S., Eyles, J., Lee, D., Manske, S.,Nykiforuk, C., Sabiston,C. M., Thompson,M., & Brown, S. (2012). School and community predictors ofsmoking: A longitudinal study of Canadian high schools. AmericanJournal of Public Health, 103(2),362-8.