HoustonCity, Texas

Houstonis the most populated municipality in the state of Texas. It alsoranked fourth in the entire country regarding population. Accordingto 2013 statistics, the city had roughly 2.196 million people. Thecity covers 676 square miles of land. This paper will look to give adetailed account of the demographic features, law enforcementagencies, courts, incarceration facilities, and crime statisticsamong other facets within the city.

Demographicfeatures of Houston City population

Accordingto the U.S. Census Bureau statistics, by July 2015, Houston city hada total population of 2,296,224 people. Back in 2010, the populationwas roughly 2,099,451. This represents an 8.6% increase in a span offive years. From the 2010 statistics, the female population was1,045,934 and the males at 1,053,517. The population according togender and race is summarized in the table below.

Table1: Huston population by Gender and Race

Female

Male

Total

Total population

1,045,934

1.053,517

2,099,451

White

521,835

538,656

1,060,491

Black/African American

264,698

233,768

498,466

Hispanic or Latino

439,885

479,783

919,668

Asian

63,469

62,909

126,378

American Indian

6,833

8,164

14,997

Native Hawaiian

130

111

241

Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander

564

589

1,153

Two or more races

33,341

35,189

68,530

Three or more races

1,764

1,621

3,385

Other races

155,194

174,242

329,436

Thetotal population in households is 2,062,380 with the males comprisingof 49.9%, i.e. 1,028,878 and the females 1,033,502. There are alsoabout 2.69 persons per household. The total number of occupied homesis 782,643. 481,570 of them are family led homes. Roughly 305,088 ofthe homes are husband-wife families. A considerable amount of thehomes had no wives or husbands. For instance, 49,474 homes aremale-led, meaning wives are not present. The female-led familieswithout husbands are substantially high i.e. 127,088 of the totalhouseholds. Nonfamily homes and persons living by themselves areconsiderably high. 242,380 individuals live alone, whereas 301,073are nonfamily homes. Regarding health, the percentage of individualsabove the age of 65 living without an insurance cover is roughly30.9%. Seven percent of the population above the age of 65 havespecial needs [ CITATION Uni15 l 1033 ].The Pew Research Center conducted a religion study in this region.Most of the residents typically 73 percent identified themselves asChristians. This comprises about19 percent Roman Catholics and 50 percent Protestants. Roughly 7percent of the population comprised of other religions such asHinduism, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism. About 20 percent of thepopulation did not identify with any religion [ CITATION Pew15 l 1033 ].

Lawenforcement agencies

Severaloffices of the Federal government are located in the city of Houston.They include the Federal Detention Center, which is a correctionalfacility. The US Military Entrance is also located in the area. Otheroffices include the US Food Assistance and Nutrition, FederalProtective SVC, US Defense Criminal Investigation, US DefenseContract Management Agency, and the Military Order of the PurpleHeart. The FBI also has a field office serving the entire Houstonarea. Though the headquarters is in Washington, the Federal Bureau ofInvestigation functions across all the states subdividing itselfaccording to states and cities. The FBI field office in Houstonoffers services to the counties of Fort Bend, Lavaca, Calhoun,Brazoria, Waller, Walker, Colorado, Jasper, Brooks, Austin, Harris,San Patricio, Orange, and Live Oak among other areas. It also has sixlocal agencies within Texas City, Victoria, Corpus Christi, Beaumont,Conroe, and Bryan. Huston City has several police departments thatprotect its citizens. They are divided into substations distributedacross the region. There are more than 26 substations spreadaccording to the regions. For instance, the central region has twostations the north has four, Northwest has two, Southeast four, andWestside two. The headquarters is located in the Administrationbuilding, 1200 Travis Street. Apart from that, several policedepartment offices are located in the region. Some include the SpringValley Police Department along the Campbell Road, Jacinto City PoliceDepartment, Houston Police Academy in Westfield, Bellaire PoliceDepartment, Memorial Villages Police Department, HPD Central PatrolStation, and the Harris County Sheriff’s Department among others [ CITATION The15 l 1033 ].

TheHPD has 13 patrol divisions that are subdivided into districts.Operating 24 hours, the department is highly staffed throughout thehours. The city also has 29 HPD localities which operate under theregular working hours. HPD also contains several special operationsunits, including Auto Theft, Robbery, Vice, Crime Lab, SpecialOperations, Property, and Identification. The special units also havespecialized subgroups that are allocated 230 special unit officers.The group is assigned in particular places like specific events,special response, and tactical unit. The aim of the Houston PoliceDepartment is to improve the quality of life for its residents. Asrecorded by the US Bureau of Justice Statistics, by 2008 the state ofTexas had over 1900 law enforcement agencies. The number is regardedthe most as compared to other states. It also had over 55,000 swornlaw enforcers mandated to provide security within the state. Thisindicates that roughly 240 officers are protecting around 100,000citizens. Even in the current system, Houston city employs morepolice officers to counter the rising population so that balance ismaintained.

Courts

TheUnited States District Court, Southern District of Texas is a fifthcircuit court located in Houston. It represents the U.S. court ofappeal in the southern parts of Texas. Apart from that, it has aroundsix offices within the district. Since it was founded, the court hasbeen presided by six clerks and 41 district judges. Other courthousesinclude the Bob Casey Federal, United States Post Office andCourthouse, and the United States Post Office. The entire HarrisCounty has 59 district courts, which are the most in the entireState. Houston happens to be the largest city within this county. Thewhole of Texas has 14 courts of appeal with two of them being locatedin Houston. Houston has a total of 14 courts across the entireregion. They include South Houston City Hall, Houston MunicipalCourts, Harris County Tax Court, Bunker Hill Municipal Court, andPiney Point Municipal Court among others.

Incarcerationfacilities

FederalDetention Center (FDC) is a U.S. federal prison located in Houston.It is under the care of FBP a component of the U.S. Department ofJustice. The facility holds around 928 inmates from both genders. TheSouth Texas Intermediate Sanction is a parole confinement facilitylocated in Houston. It holds around 450 parole offenders. Easthamprison is a correctional facility with a capacity of 2,153 for malesonly. There are two state jails within Harris County i.e. Kegans andLychner. Lychner has an acreage of 64 and a capacity of 2,276 maleoffenders. On the other hand, Kegan holds a maximum of 667 maleoffenders [ CITATION Tre15 l 1033 ].

Crimestatistics

Thecrime rates in Houston tend to fluctuate annually. The table belowsummarizes the rates between the year 2011 and 2014 [ CITATION Cit16 l 1033 ].

Table2: Crime rates in Houston between 2011 and 2014

Type

2011

2012

2013

2014

Murder (per 100,000)

198 (9.2)

217 (10)

214 (9.8)

242 (10.9)

Rapes(per 100,000)

771 (36)

665 (30.5)

618 (28.3)

812 (36.6)

Robberies(per 100,000)

8,054 (375.7)

9,385 (431)

9,891 (453.6)

10,186 (458.8)

Assaults(per 100,000)

11,869(553.7)

11,343(521.0)

10,270(471.0)

10,768(485.1)

Burglaries(per 100,000)

27,459(1,281.0)

26,630(1,223.1)

23,733(1,088.4)

21,629(974.3)

Thefts(per 100,000)

68,596(3,200.0)

67,978(3,122.2)

73,591(3,374.8)

68,125(3,068.8)

Auto thefts(per 100,000)

12,281(572.9)

13,070(600.3)

13,595(623.5)

14,443(650.6)

Arson(per 100,000)

765(35.7)

754(34.6)

708(32.5)

716(32.3)

Asper the above statistics, the crime rates in Houston are quite highas compared to other nearby cities. Looking at the countrywidestatistics, Houston is regarded as a dangerous city due to theextensive crime rates.

Thetable below compares the crime rates in Houston and the Country’saverages.

Table3: Comparison of crime rates in Houston with U.S Averages per 100,000population

Violent Crime rate

Property Crime rate

Houston City

U.S Averages

Houston City

U.S Averages

2011

524.8

214.1

507.6

273.5

2012

532.2

214.5

496.1

267.3

2013

515.8

204.3

485.2

250.4

2014

536.1

202.6

450.7

232.8

Theabove data suggests that Houston crime rates are considerably high.The crimes per square mile are much higher in Houston when comparedto nearby cities and the entire country as a whole.

Thenational median is 32.8.

References

City-Data. (2016). The crime rate in Houston, Texas (TX): murders, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts, auto thefts, arson, law enforcement employees, police officers, crime map. Retrieved from Crime rate in Houston, Texas (TX): murders, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts, auto thefts, arson, law enforcement employees, police officers, crime map: http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-Houston-Texas.html

Pew Research Center. (2015). America`s Changing Religious Landscape: Religion and Public life. Huston, Texas.

The City of Houston. (2015). Houston Police Department. Retrieved from Houston Police Department: http://www.houstonpolice.org/go/doc/2133/289249/

Trent Marshall. (2015). Prison Locations and Parole Resources. Retrieved from Prison Locations and Parole Resources: https://www.dfwparole.com/parole-and-probation-resources/

United States Census Bureau. (2015). Population Demographics for Houston. Retrieved from Population Demographics for Houston: https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/AGE295215/4835000