IMPACTOF THE POST-1994 THROUGH THE IDP INITIATIVE IN ADDRESSING THE LOCALGOVERNMENT ISSUES
SouthAfrica prides in being among the most developed countries in Africa.The Human Development Index (HDI) which is a standard way ofmeasuring the well-being of the people ranks South Africa at number 9out of a total of 54 countries (Mouton, Louw and Strydom, 2012). TheSouth African government has three divisions which are: the national,provincial and the local government.
Thegovernment of South Africa came up with the municipal systems actthat ensures that municipalities create a strategic plan to guide themanagement and development of the district. The integrateddevelopment plan`s implementation was after the post-apartheid era.The main aim of introducing the comprehensive development plan was topromote equality and social responsibility among the citizens ofSouth Africa. Racial discrimination was evident in all parts of SouthAfrica because the white people disregarded the black people and viceversa. The white people were more privileged and had rights, but theydenied the black people the same. For example, the black people werenot supposed to enroll in schools that were meant only for the whitepeople or even eat in restaurants that were specifically for thewhite people.
Thispaper analyzes the impact that IDP has made on addressing the localgovernment issues in their municipality. It is important to note theissues that were there during the apartheid era and how well resolvedthey are. The Stellenbosch strategic plan will be used as a guide toshow the progress that the IDP has made, and key issues addressed,that were bringing tension in the apartheid era. The topics ofdiscussion include:
1.Racially divided businesses and residential areas
2.Badly planned areas for the poor
3.Differences in level of services between the rich and the poor
4.Sprawling informal settlements and spread out residential areasthat make cheap service delivery difficult?
IntegratedDevelopment Plan (IDP) is the core management tool of the localgovernment that seeks to guide the long term and short termactivities and resource allocation of the municipality as a whole.
Spatialdevelopment framework (SDF) is an indicator of the type and basementof various exercises in a style that is consistent with agreedobjectives.
ComprehensiveIntegrated Transport Plans (ITP) is a framework through whichadministration can scheme for, build, supervise, combine and fund forall means of transportation within the areas they control.
Integratedwaste management plan (IWMP) this is a conscious effort by themunicipal authorities to curb the problem of waste disposal.
RaciallyDivided Business and Residential Areas
Radicalizationwas a common practice in South Africa, and people did not have equalrights. The Stellenbosch Municipality was one of the mostwhite-dominated municipals in the country. Due to the dominance ofthe white people, it was also the wealthiest and had a lot ofresources compared to other municipals. Stellenbosch municipality hada prospering economy, but only a select group enjoyed the benefits.Today more than 60% of the locals are blacks, and only about 15% arewhites while 25% are colored. Businesses were divided based on racialterms because a black person was not entitled to go to buy goods froma “white man’s store” (Mouton, Louw and Strydom, 2012). Thesuccess of any business relied upon the color of the owner of thefirm. If a black man were to start a business, he would face a lot ofdiscrimination from authorities and questions would follow as to howthe capital to launch the business originated.
Residential areas were divided based on the racial basis with thewhite people mostly lived in rich areas of the municipality. Theblack people, on the other hand, lived in places that were sub-parand not fit for human occupation. For example, the majority of theradicalized people lived in slums that had poor sanitation, no water,and other necessary requirements that people need.
Accordingto the Local Government review (2004/2005), the post-apartheid eraand the introduction of the municipal systems act ensured thatresources are shared equally among the concerned parties. Someaspects of progress are already in the realization process. TheAfrican population has the second largest proportion of unemploymentin the area. It, however, has reduced from 51.4% in 2001 to 43.7% in2007. The“3rd Generation IDP” has played a vital role in ensuringthat equality prevailed in every aspect concerning the municipality.The strategic goals set by Stellenbosch administration that relate toservices offered are a clear description of social justice.
Among the particular service provision accomplishments of themetropolis during the preparation of the third IDP involve thehosting of a local development inbada with its focus on inclusiveeconomic growth and competitiveness. Its aim was to inform a reviewof the regional economic development strategy and to come up withjoint strategies towards greater economic integration of thepreviously disadvantaged and marginalized communities (O`Brien,2011). Another area-based contribution was by the Idas Valleyminister’s group. They requested that the municipality shouldprioritize the redress of the apartheid and promote socio-economicjustice. They also asked for preferential access to employmentopportunities and even training for the locals.
TheIDP also describes the vision which is “a world-class universitytown which delivers excellent services to all its citizens”. Theview stresses out the point of social equality by stating that theywant to offer excellent services to all its citizens. Currently, thesuburbs of Stellenbosch municipality are not divided by race, and thelocal government is ensuring that no discrimination acts happen whenmoving to another town.
BadlyPlanned Areas for the Poor
Therewas unequal resource distribution among the people who resided inStellenbosch municipal. As earlier stated, the municipal was one ofthe wealthiest because of the majority of the white people that usedto live there. Resources were mainly used to develop the areas thatthe white man lived in, and the black man was left to suffer. Housingprojects were started to accommodate the white people and on theother hand, the black man lived in cabin places which would later becalled Watts. 59.2% of households earned about0 to 42 000 Rands while25.6% earned between R42 000 to R132 000 14.4 % earned R132 000 andR600 000 and 0.8% earning more than R600 000 in the year 2001. In2009, 30.4% of the families earned a salary of between R0 to R42 00036.1% earned between R42 000 to R132 000 28.5% between R132 000 andR600 000 and 4.9% earn above R600 000.
Act5 of The National Land Transport Act (NLTA) 2009, requires “Type 1”planning authorities, which includes the Stellenbosch Township toformulate Comprehensive Integrated Transport Plans (ITP). It wouldenhance integrated planning of delivery infrastructure andfacilities, transportation of bulk products and services, publicmovement facilities within the discourse of IDP and land developmentgoals. There are also plans for non-motorized means of transportationsuch as cycling and walking.
Themunicipality has also agreed to an integrated waste management plan(IWMP) prepared in line with the National Waste Management Strategy(March 2010). There is a need for proper training and allocation ofboth human and financial resources to the waste managementauthorities (Local government review, 2004). It would ensure theefficient tackling of waste disposal and have a positiveenvironmental impact. The “3rd generation IDP” ensures that theresources of the municipal are carefully planned for and allocatedequally. The IDP outlines clearly indicate the need to share theresources equally.
Differencesin Level of Services between the Rich and the Poor
Accordingto O`Brien (2011), the quality of services offered to the rich wasnot the same as provided to the poor. 80% of the poor people did nothave access to basic services such as clean water and propersanitation. The apartheid system ensured that the best qualityservices were only for the rich people who were mainly white people.The poor could not be allowed to be in the same school as the whitepeople.
TheIDP has ensured that there is quality in service delivery to everyoneregardless of the background differences that are eminent in thisregion. It is important for municipal leaders and the officials ofall ranks, who are representing various services and interests, tograsp the strategy for inclusive service provision over time. Thecomplete overall strategy needs a proper presentation in a mannerwhich assists its internalization by all. The municipal is determinedto ensure that all its residents receive a similar level of qualityservices and are satisfied by their services. For instance, there hasbeen an increase in the access to tapped clean water from 71.9% to87% among the households from the year 2001 to 2007.
According to the Stellenbosch strategic goal seven on self-helpaction and dignified living, they aim at all dwellers of Stellenboschenjoying a decent life, regardless of their relative material worthor background. It would imply accessible shelter of high quality orthe empowerment to afford a home, accessible and well-maintainedpublic facilities. Residents would enjoy a strong sense of communityidentity, and participate in many ways of social life and diversepersonalities. High, empowered social connections would create aplatform for community action, participation and intervention(McIntyre-Mills, Kedibone, Arko-Achemfuor, Mabunda and Njiro, 2014). All delicate groups, specifically the young, women and the agedwould acquire necessary aid, whether to support livelihoods orenhance individual growth.
In advancing help, they envision smooth coordination between variousgovernment bodies, the society and private institutions in theirdrives. They state that they are promoting systems that enhanceconstructive dialogue, resolving conflict, and support of thedisadvantaged and delicate and enhancing equality and access tocommunity resources.
Spreadingout Informal Settlements and Spread out Residential Areas that makeCheap Service Delivery difficult.
Notmany Africans were lucky enough to obtain formal housing during theapartheid era. Even the few who did were serving as slaves in theirwhite masters’ compounds where they lived. Many Africans who workedas laborers would build up cabins near their places of work. Theylived there with their families. The informal settlements crowded upand then later turned into expansive slums. Despite the unwillingnessof the apartheid administration to provide these dwellers withessential services, it is still hard even today to do so consideringthe nature of the unplanned settlements (Jenkins and Du Plessis,n.d.). To counter the challenge o f the sprawl of informalsettlements, the SDF clearly stated its principles and objectives onland development. The Stellenbosch Municipality SDF stipulates thatthere be a mean concentration of approximately 25 du/ha inresidential areas with enough space to include public transportationand 15 du/ha in rural localities to ensure efficient delivery ofservices and maximize the security of limited natural resources. There should be a clear indication of proper edges to living areas tofacilitate inward expansion and protect valuable agricultural andnatural ecosystems thus completely transforming these slum areas.Adequate housing has increased from 67% to 90.4%.
Theformal households in the municipality have water connections andwaterborne sanitation facilities. Public standpipes and lavatoryfacilities service the ones in the casual areas. These standpipes area representation of the deficiencies of water provision services(McIntyre-Mills, Kedibone, Arko-Achemfuor, Mabunda and Njiro, 2014).The construction of the Standpipes is in such a way that cannotwithstand excessive use or abuse. Quite often the neglected operationand maintenance of the common standpipes and ablution facilitiesfurther squash the health of its already vulnerable and sick users. Development`s focus should be on alternative energy, water, and wastemanagement services however it should not increase the capital andenvironmental problems caused by the existing infrastructureprovision.
TheStellenbosch Housing Plan (2017) gives weight to the SDF’s advancedlocal configurations of space. It consists of a series of intertwinedand tightly configured settlements with clearly indicated edges,surrounded by farming land. The aim is to provide about 20 500 livingquarters to address the current deficiency in housing. The ServiceDelivery Business Plan (SDBP) of the Planning, Integrated HumanSettlements, and Property Development Directorate accommodates a fullhousing pipeline. The upgrades of the informal settlements happen ina dispersed manner within the region (Jenkins, and Du Plessis, n.d.).They have an informal settlement department to oversee and controlthe process of upgrading the informal units in place. That is anindication to all people in the township enjoying the comfort of goodand lovely homes.
Themunicipality of stellenbosch has developed in the past decade, butthe implementation of the IDP takes a lot of time.The localgovernment should ensure that the resources to implement the IDP areavailable in time.
Tofurther enhance the effectiveness of the IDP, the local authorityshould encourage more participation of its locals in the variousprocesses they undertake. They should ensure that before any projectstarts there are enough consultations with those that are expected tobenefit from it to ensure their felt needs are prioritized.Development imposed on the people rather than that coming from thepeople faces heightened rivalry and ends up not being initiated.
Thereshould also be consultations with other local authorities so as tobenchmark on their success. It can help to generate more ideas. Thereshould also be mechanisms set for overall assessment of effectivenessand performance of the IDP
Thepost-1994 direction, through the IDP initiative, has seen a lot ofprogress in trying to address the challenges that the people facedduring the apartheid era. There are now ethical business practicesamong and across all the people of South Africa. Every player now hasequal chances of prospering in the business field. Free tradeprevails where the colored people’s businesses thrive wellalongside the white’s. The residential areas are now open tooccupation from people across the country without particular areasbeing set aside for the privileged groups as it had earlier been thecase. Black people have now moved into areas that previouslyreservations were only for the white people. They even share socialfacilities such as bars and restaurants are formerly known as” noblacks’ zone.”
Initiatives are being made to effect proper plans into areas that hadnot been properly planned such as in the slums. According to theStellenbosch municipal IDP, there is continued improvement such asthe creation of proper sanitation services, infrastructure as well aseconomic opportunities for the poor. They receive suitable housingand civic education.
Thereis standardization in the value of essential services and otherneeds. People can now acquire anything in the best quality they likeas no limitations any longer indicate what is to be consumed byeither racial category.
Integratedland use acts have been put in place to counter the problem of thespreading of informal settlements to ensure that scarce resources arewell protected, and there is ease of service delivery
Thearticle clearly indicates some of those challenges prevailing inSouth Africa during the apartheid era. Using Stellenbosch IDP, we geta clear view of a typical struggle field among the native SouthAfricans and the settlers. We get to know the struggles they wentthrough and how they interactively counter them
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