Introductionto American Government
Priorto the first and the current in the United States, several factorscontributed to the formation of the government. For instance, thegovernment was meant to unite and harmonize the 13 colonies currentlycalled the United States of America against Britain in pursuit oftheir independence (Wilson,DiIulio & Bose, 2016). TheArticles of Confederation set up a federal government had problemsbecause of its limited powers. That is because in critical matters,for instance, trade, defense and public finance, the FederalGovernment did not have the authority to control them In addition, itdid not meet the expectations of uniting and binding them together asa nation. When the Founding Fathers met to write the United StatesConstitution, the conflict was on the criteria that was to be used insharing power between large states and smaller states. They wereunable to establish whether states which had a higher populationshould have more powers as opposed to other states with smallerpopulations. New Jersey plan advocated for equal representation ofthe States in the Congress, an idea which was supported by smallerstates whereas the Virginia plan proposed that representation in theCongress should be done based state population .This is the same viewwhich was held by larger states. Separation of powers refers to theprocess of conferring the executive, judicial and legislative powersof the government to distinct bodies (Wilsonet al 2016).Onthe other hand, checks and balances is basically a practice ofregulating a system or organization so that political power is notaccumulated by individuals or groups.
Billof rights primarily refers to the first ten amendments of theconstitution which limits the powers of the government and alsoentitles citizens to specific freedoms. However the Bill of Rightshas attracted attention in its interpretation on various incidences,for instance, rights to free speech versus the government curtailingfreedom of journalists and the press. This does not only entail thespeech but what is written in words. The government should let themexercise their freedom. Framers designed the constitution so thatpeople can enjoy their rights freely. However, the Bill of rightsdoes not protect individuals from hate speech, defamation orobscenity. While on religion, the Bill of rights prohibits anon-religious purpose or Government involvement in religious matters(Wilson et al 2016).
Incorporationtheory is an act in which Fourteenth Amendment of the United StatesConstitution is used by the Supreme Court to apply federalprotections in the Bill of rights to the states. Notably, parts ofthe Bill of rights which have not been incorporated include, theright to a jury trial in civil lawsuits in the seventh amendment aswell as the right to an indictment by a grand jury in the FifthAmendment(Wilson et al 2016).
Wilson,J. Q., DiIulio Jr, J. J., & Bose, M. (2016). Americangovernment: Institutions and policies.Cengage Learning.