Leadershipand Management

Healthinstitutions have the obligation to meet the planned health goalswhile easing the provision of health care services. The health careindustry experiences various challenges, particularly, on theshortage of resources that affect the delivery of health careservices. Human and material resources are essential for therealization of positive health outcomes. Most studies indicate thatthe shortage of clinical staff arises from the unsteadiness in theturnover. The issue generates adverse effects on costs, patientoutcomes, and the entire health systems. Inadequate resources haveunpleasant effects on the institutional capacity to handle patientneeds and the provision of quality services.

Asthe health institutions adapt to changing trends, creativity is vitalto permit new and innovative ways to deliver health care servicesthrough deliberate strategic changes. Effective leadership isnecessary to help in solving the challenges arising from nurseshortage. The debate on nursing shortage has generated interestregarding the effects on the costs, patient outcomes and the entirehealth systems. The nature of leadership and management adopted bythe clinical administrators has significant influence in generatinginterventions to address the staff shortage. Nursing scarcity hasunpleasant effects on the institutional capacity to handle patientneeds and the provision of quality services. The excellence ofhealthcare services is primarily jeopardized as the current supply ofthe nurses, and other clinical staffs cannot meet the increaseddemand. Clinical leaders and policy makers need to formulatestrategic steps through training, motivation, and utilization ofbetter management approaches to address the nursing deficiency.


Throughhis analysis, Bertocci (2009) identified that leaders and managersare different through the activities they perform. However, heacknowledged that there are some interrelationships between managersand leaders. He further asserts that various functions in themanagement can eventually provide the administrators, and allactivities involved in leadership can help to influence management.Leaders and managers are very different kinds of individuals based onaims, motivations, temperament, behaviors, and thoughts. Theactivities of the managers are to solve problems and set personalgoals toward organizational achievements while leaders influencesthrough chaos, tolerance, as well as inspiring people towards actionsand commitment to change (Bertocci, 2009).

Bothmanagerial and leadership characteristics play out in theadministration of health institutions. Leadership is a relationshipthat is jointly developed by both the followers and leaders. Clinicalleadership is crucial and tentatively steady with the existingsetting on the significance of efficient health performance. Themembers in a clinical setting include nurses, support staff, doctorsas well as the patients. Clinical leaders need to identify approachesthat can help in the accomplishment of tasks despite the shortage ofstaff. Charismatic leaders are innovative in their duties. Nursingshortage will require the managers to identify resources and areas ofimprovement, with minimal financial implications (Kelly, 2012). Amanager would engage in rational assessment of the logical selectionof objectives and purposes to help create strategies to address staffshortage. He or she may consider recruiting more employees on apart-time basis to cover for the shortage. As such, we identify thata manager is largely a problem-solver.

Effectiveleadership leads to job satisfaction, effective career growth,increased motivation, and organizational commitment among thefollowers. Kelly (2012) notes that effective leadership leads to thecreation of a favorable working environment build on trust andrelationship where followers are able to make proper and informedjudgments. Developing an agreeable organizational culture at alllevels through staff engagement, for instance, is imperative in thegrowth of shared values. Kelly (2012) asserts that a healthy workingenvironment cannot be achieved when the leaders fail to involve thejunior staff members. The followers in a clinical setting are thedrivers of any leadership scheme designed to advance the workingenvironment.

Anexisting shortage in nursing requires collaboration efforts by bothpolicymakers and health care providers. Health care services revolvearound assisting the process of service delivery and harness theinstitutional structure. Staffing is a prime ingredient for positivehealth outcomes in the society. A good manager will examine thenursing requirements in an institution to understand the staffingstrategies to use as a means to address the shortage of staff. According to Bertocci (2009), transformational leaders do not alwaysfollow the conventional procedures but try new and innovativestrategies to address the challenges at hand. In the case above, sucha leader would develop a plan that would see duties allocateddepending on the magnitude of functions. Further, an effective leadermay devise an action that would lead to increased utilization oftechnology to serve some of the institutional functions.

Motivatingemployees help in forming an organizational behavior, which is basedon achieving excellence. Motivation looks at employees as entitieswho shape and influence the business outcomes. The needs andinterests of clinical staffs are dictated by the policies, which areinfluenced by the clinical leaders. According to Maslow’s NeedsHierarchy Theory, satisfying the needs of an employee boosts his/herwork esteem and attentiveness at work (Kelly, 2012). Transformationalleadership style is appropriate in institutions with the shortage ofstaff. The style is helpful in reducing turnover and boosting themorale of the employees. A transformational leader recognizes theimportance of developing an elaborate and stimulating agenda for thestaff and institution.

Inthe US, for instance, various lobby groups such as the AmericanOrganization of Nurse Executives and the American Association ofCritical Care Nurses have come up with measures to develop leaders inthe health sector (Weir-Hughes, 2011). The model used ‘NurseManager Inventory’ designed in 2004 ensures the capacity of nursesin the service delivery at various unit levels. The approach ensuresthat the available clinical staffs give optimal performance despitethe shortage. Improving the working environment in the healthinstitutions is necessary to attract individuals into taking theprofession as well as reduce turnover. Clinical leaders can create apositive working culture to improve employee relations.

Leadersutilize management approaches that consider the interests of allplayers to ensure harmony in the delivery of services. With propermanagement, there is improved efficiency since the inputs of allstakeholders are recognized while elaborate strategies put in placeto help in generating positive outcomes (Niles, 2013). Currently, themanagement style in the health facilities is largely task-orientedleaving slight independence on essential matters such as staffrecruitment and workforce turnover. Effective leaders plan strategicshort-term and long-term goals by identifying the existing andpotential challenges. Planning in a health care set up should befocused on the customers, service delivery, and outcomes. It is theobligation of the leadership to come up operational plans, which arecrucial in the realization of positive health outcomes (Rigolosi,2013).


Nursingshortage requires urgent intervention to reduce the adverse effectson the delivery of healthcare services. The scarcity is notnecessarily contributed to the shortage of trained clinical staff butby the lack of elaborate strategies to inform the healthcare system.Clinical leaders need to identify appropriate interventions such asemployee motivation, training, and resource mobilization. Leadershipand management strategies taken by the administrators have an immenseinfluence on the realization of positive outcomes.


Bertocci,D. (2009). Leadershipin organizations : there is a difference between leaders andmanagers. Lanham,Md: University Press of America.

Niles,N. (2013). Basicconcepts of health care human resource management.Burlington: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

Rigolosi,E. (2013). Managementand leadership in nursing and health care : an experiential approach.New York: Springer.

Weir-Hughes,D. (2011). Clinicalleadership from A to Z.Harlow: Pearson Education.