Thefirst change model is the Kurt Lewin unfreeze, change, and freezemanagement model. During the unfreezing stage, organizations getready for a change by weighing the associated advantages anddemerits. Where the benefits overweigh the shortcomings,organizations generate the motivations within their employees toadapt to the changes. Consequently, organizations are forced tounfreeze the employees from their comfort zones (Connelly,n.d, c).

Thesecond phase entails implementing the change. According to Connelly(n.d, c), change is a gradual process as opposed to an event. Duringthe transition time, organizations teach their employees about therequired new way of doing things. Consequently, the managementorganizations engage their employees in training and coachingactivities. Besides, it is important for businesses to create moreroom for employees to learn from their mistakes. Besides, role modelsare used to allow workers to develop their solutions as the processof effecting change. Communication is paramount during this period toensure that the staff is regularly updated about the desired courseof action. The third phase is refreezing. It entails creatingstability after the transform. Refreezing is vital for ensuring thatemployees become comfortable with the new course of action (Connelly,n.d, c).

Thesecond model is the Kotter’s 8-step model of effective change. Thefirst step requires organizations to establish a sense of urgency.During the development, institutes examine the market and competitiverealities to determine the efficiency of change. Besides, theyidentify and discuss various crises, potential disasters, and thesignificant opportunities presented by the change. The second phasefeatures the creation of a guiding coalition. During the stage,organizations create a change management group and give it the powerto drive the change process. Besides, the group is empowered to workas a team. The fourth step entails communication of the changevision. The business uses various forms of communication to passinformation about short-term objectives of modification as well asthe expected behavior of the workers (Connelly,n.d, b).

Thefifth step is the empowerment of broad-based actions. The activitiesaim at eliminating barriers to the revolution by restructuring theprocess of transformation. Organizations encourage the employees toundertake risks, as well as, nontraditional actions, ideas, andactivities. The sixth step involves generating short-term wins. Thegroup plans for visible improvement in performance. Besides, itrewards employees for their contribution towards change (Connelly,n.d, b).

Theseventh step entails consolidating gains to increase the effect ofchange. The organization creates credibility by altering all thesystems and policies that do not fit with the vision of change. Italso creates a system of promoting, developing, and hiring people whocan take control of the amendments. The management reinvigorates thechange process with new projects’ change agents and themes.Finally, the eighth phase entails anchoring new approaches in theorganization culture. The administration creates better performanceand implements behaviors that are oriented to the customer andproductivity. They also articulate the connections betweenorganization success and employee behavior (Connelly,n.d, b).

Thethird model is the ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, andReinforcement) transformation management model. Unlike otherstrategies that focus on the organization process of implementingchange, the ADKAR method emphasizes the need for the successfultransition for each member of staff. First, the technique requiresorganizations to create awareness of transformation. The periodentails communicating the need for change to all the affectedparties. After the completion of the first step, each employee whollycomprehends why the change is necessary (Connelly,n.d, a).

Thesecond step involves creating the desire to participate in theprocess of change. The process entails motivating all the relevantindividuals. For example, the company can address workers’incentives as a tactic of getting them to be part of the revolutionprocess. The third step entails creating knowledge on how to change.Organizations can build information through training, education, andcoaching. Besides, organizations can set up mentoring forums toenhance the transfer of information on what employees should doduring the change and how to perform once the change is implemented(Connelly,n.d, a).

Thefourth phase entails informing the relevant party’s ability toperform the required skills and behavior. The organization utilizesthe use of coaching, training, evaluation and feedback to support theactual performance of individuals. The fifth period entails creatingreinforcements to sustain the modification. The organizationemphasizes on measuring performance, creating rewards and recognitionas well as providing feedback to the employees (Connelly,n.d, a).


Connelly,M. (n.d, a). ADKAR: simple, powerful, action oriented model forchange. Changemanagement coach.Retrievedon 9 July 2016 from

Connelly,M. (n.d, b). Kotter`s 8-Step Model for effective change. Changemanagement coach.Retrievedon 9 July 2016 from

Connelly,M. (n.d, c). The Kurt Lewin change management model. Changemanagement coach.Retrievedon 9 July 2016 from