PATIENT SATISFACTION AND NURSING CARE 1

PatientSatisfaction and Nursing Care

Abstract

Thefollowing proposal focuses on the relationship between nursing careand patient satisfaction, as this is essential to the success of ahospital. The interest is to explore this relationship and howintertwined the two are and how to improve this relationship. Thereare earlier studies indicating the presence of this relationship andthis study intends to emphasize further on this topic.

Highlevels of patient satisfaction are necessary for a hospital tosucceed. Nurses are the caregivers that interact the most with thepatients. This most likely has the highest likelihood of impact onpatient satisfaction. The following is a research proposal thatintends to examine the critical liaison between patient satisfactionand nursing care. Many believe that these two are intrinsicallyintertwined and crucial to one another. Thus, the paper will look atrelated studies and their findings with this relationship.

ProblemStatement

Thisresearch wants to explore if there is a link between the nurse andtheir reported practice, and satisfaction of the patients, or ifthere is a stronger indicator?

LiteratureReview

Papastavrou,Andreou, Tsangari and Merkouris (2014) they analyzed exploratoryideas in their study. Through this, a link was detected betweenpatient satisfaction and nurse-reported situations of nursing care,as well as, the nurses’ perceptions concerning their professionalenvironment. They also investigated if there is a threshold score forrationing, and specifically, if this can be obtained by comparing thelevel of patient satisfaction factors. The study chose 352 patientsand 318 nurses from&nbspten medical and surgical units from fivegeneral hospitals. The BERNCA scale was used to take measurements.This scale also measured the rationing of care. In addition to this,the study pursued to explore nurses` perceptions of their workenvironment, thus leading them to use the RPPE scale, as it wasspecifically designed for this. They also used a patient satisfactionscale for assessing the level of patient satisfaction, specificallyfor the nursing care received by them. The prompt to this study wasthe idea of implicit rationing of nursing care, which is withholdingor failing to carry out all the necessary nursing measures due to alack of resources. In addition, they found evidence that supported alink to exist between the rationing of nursing care, the nurses`perception of the professional environment, any negative patientoutcomes, and actions of placing the patients` safety at risk. Theirresults support a relationship to exist betweenorganizational/environmental variables, care rationing, and thepatients` satisfaction. Their identification of the threshold for thepoint where the rationing starts to influence the patient outcomes ina negative way can work in allowing nurses to introduce differentinterventions for maintaining the rationing level to a point thatwould not jeopardize the patient safety.

Another study, published in theJournal of AdvancedNursing, explored theidea of measuring patient satisfaction with nursing care. There is aninterest in this accord due to the health care received and thecorresponding level of patient satisfaction. This is a high interestfor many healthcare facilities, as they seek to maintain high levelspatient satisfaction to stay ahead in the competitive healthcaremarket. They believe that nursing holds a pronounced role indetermining the level of patient satisfaction, thus leading thoseinvolved, such as hospitals, to want to define and clarify theconcept of interest. The framework for their analysis was Rodgers`evolutionary method. They retrieved data from multiple databases,including the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied HealthLiterature, MEDLINE and the ABI/INFORM global business. Through theirliterature search, and focus on keywords like patient satisfaction,nursing care, and hospital. They accumulated a sample of 44 papers,all published in English between 1998 and 2007. Their resultsindicated that patient satisfaction is associated with nursing care,and it had a variety of characteristics, such as affective support,professional/technical competencies, health information, and decisioncontrol. The consequences of achieving a high level in thisrelationship would result in a greater market share of healthcareorganizations, and better health outcomes (Wagner and Bear, 2009).

&nbsp Lake,Germack and Viscardi (2015) published their research in theinternational journal of healthcare improvement, BMJQuality &amp Safety, onthe relationship between patient satisfaction and nursing care. Theyaimed to describe if and how much prevalence there is for missednursing care and the patterns of its prevalence, in addition toexploring the nurses` relationship to the patient care experience.The idea that nurses stand as the primary caregiver in hospitalsettings prompted this idea. As the primary caregiver, the hypothesiswas that their completion or omission of nursing care would have aconsiderable impact on the patient care experience and that thisrelationship had not been sufficiently explored empirically. Thisstudy used a cross-sectional analysis method, using secondary nurseand patient survey data, obtained from 409 adults, nonfederal, acutecare hospitals from four different states of the US. They used thisdata to calculate descriptive statistics and conducted linearregression models at the hospital level. They found that in anaverage hospital, nurses missed 2.7 of the 12 required careactivities per shift, with 73.4% of nurses reporting to miss at leastone activity on their most recent shift. The most common issue wasnurses reporting feelings of&nbspdiscomfort with talking to theirpatients (47.6%) and planning care properly (38.5%). Their resultsindicated that missed nursing care was prevalent across UnitedStates’ hospitals, but varied widely, and the patients tended torate their hospital care experience highly, but this also variedwidely across the hospitals. The nurse-patient relationship found inthe study was that patients will have a poorer care experience inhospitals where more nurses miss their required nursing care.

Further, another study wasconducted to determine the difference in patient satisfaction to theoverall nursing care and the perceived nurse caring under thestandards of care protocol, including caring activities. The specificprocedure being examined was that implemented by the National CancerInstitute, which is the designated comprehensive cancer center. Theintent for this study stemmed from the idea of nursing being linkedto multiple clinical outcomes, such as patient satisfaction,well-being, and healing. In the study this, they used apre-experimental per/post-test design along with a comparison groupwith a ‘post-test-only` design, to test the effectiveness of thecaring protocol on the patient satisfaction regarding the nursingcare the received and the perceived nurse caring. They conducted thisstudy on seven inpatient units. The results indicated that thepatient satisfaction with the nursing care increased for some items,but not all, and the perceived nurse caring was ultimately rankedhighly immediately before the patient`s discharge. They concludedwith the recommendation that added program evaluation studies thatinvolve a modified caring protocol may ultimately improve patientsatisfaction for&nbspnursing care seen in other settings (Keeley,Wolf, Regul, and Jadwin, 2015).&nbsp

&nbsp Inaddition, a study published in the ScandinavianJournal of Caring Sciences (2015)explored the patients` perceptions of the participation in nursingcare in medical wards. The main goal was to explore the hospitalizedpatients` perceptions of participating in nursing care, includingdifferent barriers and facilitators. The first interest was in howpatient participation benefits the patient and how this is a coreconcept for patient-centered care. As patients may tend to believe intheir own ability to prevent errors, this may play a crucial role incombating adverse event rates within hospitals. The method was aninterpretive approach, being conducted in four medical wards in twohospitals. They had twenty patients take part in the study with fourcategories&nbspuncovered in the data. The four categories were:

  1. viewing the patients` willingness to take part as a worthwhile task,

  2. the exchange of information as a way of participating,

  3. sign of patients taking participation as monitoring their own care, thus showing the attentive approach for their own safety, and,

  4. the power imbalance being characterized by the patients’ feeling as if their opportunities are restricted for participation.

Theresults showed that the patients studied had enough motivation toactively take part and so, valued their opportunity to do so. This isvery important, as cultivating&nbspthis motivation&nbspis&nbspcrucialfor the patient empowerment and practicing safety monitoring. Theyrecommend for future research to address the pathways needed forincreasing patient motivation and the opportunities available toparticipate.

Lastly,there was a study published in the Journalof Advanced Nursing. Thisstudy`s intention was to further investigate and fully comprehend thepatient`s satisfaction with the nursing care experienced in theintensive care unit and to find out the dimensions of the concept of‘satisfaction` coming from the patients` point of view. The methodfor this was a qualitative approach, through designing and validatinga questionnaire to measure these satisfaction levels for criticalpatients. The theory used for this study was the Grounded Theory forthe first phase. They used a qualitative approach during the firstphase and a quantitative approach for the second. The results showedthat the self-perceptions, beliefs, demographics, experiences,socio-cultural epistemological and political factors, were all strongdeterminants of the level of patient satisfaction. Considering this,the factors should be taken into account in compiling and designing aquestionnaire to study the level of satisfaction (de-la-Cueva-Arizaet al, 2013).

Methodology

Bothprimary and secondary types of research have been conducted for thisstudy. For the primary research, 300 patients and 50 nurses (andother types of caregivers) from 3 different hospitals wereinterviewed via a survey questionnaire. And for the secondaryresearch, scholarly papers from different databases were reviewed.

DataAnalysis

Thedata from all the studies examined show a prevailing relationshipbetween nursing care and the level of satisfaction among thepatients. None of the studies contradicted with one another inregards to if the relationship of interest was present or not butworked together to signify a variety of factors that may influencethis relationship.

Discussion

Allstudies agreed on the correlation and relationship between nursingcare and patient satisfaction. However, future research may focus onputting a numerical value on this relationship and how greatlydifferent factors may influence this relationship. Further empiricalstudies should be conducted, as it is clear that all agree on thisrelationship being present. It would further this discovery byplacing more numerical data on the relationship.

Conclusion

Thereis an obvious link between the nursing care and the patientsatisfaction. This is crucial for the hospitals and needs&nbspfurthercomprehension to&nbspimplement nursing care methods based on thefindings. With the multiple factors seen to influence therelationship, it is worth knowing, which are the most effective.Further studies will also explore the strength of the relationship,and what methods would most improve or weaken this relationship.

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