Question one: Role of priest or priestess in religion
Almost every society across the world has a priest or priestess whohas unique and distinct roles. Priests and priestesses are assignedthe task of performing or presiding over various religious rituals inthe society. Such rituals may include baptism, intervention prayersto heal the sick or ask for rain from a deity or chairing a burial ofa religious person. Additionally, the priests and priestesses innumerous societies across the world have the role of connecting thepeople with a powerful deity such as God, who are believed to havesupernatural powers. The religious leaders are considered to becloser to the supernatural beings more than the ordinary people. Itis essential to state that these religious leaders have their specialregalia and places of residence in many communities across the world.They also play the role of being the custodians of some texts,emblems, relics and statutes that are believed to be holy. It isessential to state that the priests and priestesses have exclusivespiritual powers and are considered to be in direct contact with thedeities.
Priests and priestesses are different from Shamans in that thelatter only exist in societies that lack religion. The shamans aresomewhat believed to have powers to heal the sick, manipulate theweather or even direct the movement of animals while the religiousleaders are supposed to derive this power from a deity. Although theyresemble the religious leaders in some aspects, their roles innon-religious societies are somewhat non-religious, and they includecapabilities such as foretelling the future. The shamans are more ofguides in a community as opposed to being religious leaders.
Chapter 13: Spirituality, religion, and shamanism. Pdf.
Question two: Functions of art
Art comprises of various activities that are meant to fulfillsome duties. Majorly, art is intended to serve the purposes ofoffering entertainment, as well as beauty. For instance, the form ofart that is music has been used for decades as a means ofentertainment. People have lived to love various types or genres ofmusic and dances such as hip hop and reggae music. Another functionof art is the beauty. Art which is in the form of drawings andpaintings on canvas or even on walls is aimed at creating beauty. Itis evident that many people will decorate their houses with artisticworks to acquire beauty. Creative drawings may comprise flowers,cars, famous people or even animals. It is essential to note that thewall hangings that are found in houses are meant to create an elementof beauty.
Another function of art in the society is that it may be usedto symbolize political power, spiritual power or social status. Forexample, the Indian totem poles are used as a symbol of power, and itshows power hierarchy. These poles were majorly in front of houses ofchiefs who were leaders in the society. Therefore, these artisticposts were an indication of power hence serving the function ofdemonstrating power hierarchy is society. Art may also serve the roleof symbolizing spiritual authority in the society. For example,places of worship such as Mosques and churches will bear individualdesigns and statutes such as crosses that are artistic. It is evidentthat everyone can identify a mosque due to the creative design. Inthis regard, art is seen to serve the function of identifying placesof religious worship.
Another function of art is the transmission of culturalvalues from one generation to the other. This is mainly done throughtraditional songs and poems which have a clear message of meant forthe young generation. For example, the poems may enlighten the newgeneration on some of the clothes that traditional people wore. It isevident that some world aspects are not understood by the people, andit is, therefore, the role of myths as a form of art offerexplanations. For instance, some myths explain the origins ofhumanity or even the root of rains and the creation of the earth.Additionally, myths as a form of art may help to instill the rightbehavior amongst the people.
The functions of art. Pdf.
Question three: What is structural violence?
Structural violence can be viewed as the social, politicaland economic systems of a government that are oppressive and thosethat prevent the ordinary people from accessing the basic needs. Thestructure of the power may end up oppressing the people bothphysically and psychologically. Structural violence occurs mainlywhen the everyday people are denied the peace, justice, and freedomthat they deserve. Structural violence ensures that people are deniedtheir dignity, and they cannot lead a dignified life. There are somestructural violence aspects in the world today which include and arenot limited to overpopulation, global warming, hunger, and poverty.
With regards to poverty, it is evident that the gap betweenthe rich and the poor across the world continues to increase. This istypically oppressive to the developing countries as well as the poorpeople who continue to lead undignified lives. This is a clearindication that there is no equality amongst the people and,therefore the resources are no distributed equally. This is a form ofstructural violence that is widespread across the world. Globalwarming and air pollution is yet another form of structural violencethat is being experienced across the world. The burning of fossilfuels and release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere has destroyedthe water bodies, soil and air hence threatening life on earth(William et al., 2013). Hunger occurs mainly due to ethnic conflictsacross the world. Research has indicated that there are over 40million people who suffer from hunger. Lastly, overpopulation isanother form of structural violence that is prevalent across theworld. The world population has grown exponentially in the last 100years to a total of 7 billion people. This population has led toother social challenges such as lack of security, food shortage andlack of sufficient health services.
William,A. et al. (2013). Chapter 16: Globalchallenges, Local responses and the role of anthropology. NeyYork: Cengage learning.