ResearchPaper (scientific article)

Musicis a soothing element that can help to reduce stress. According tothe research, music can reduce stress by lowering the cardiovascularrecovery. However, only some music genres have the ability to reducethe stress. Based on this idea, this paper will summarize some of thefindings done on the same. The concepts that are used, experimentsthat were done, and the results obtained. However, before discussingthe scientific research, it is crucial to have knowledge of any termsutilized within the paper.

Definitionof terms and concepts

Cardiovascularsystem – relates to the circulatory structure that consists of theblood vessels and the heart. It transmits oxygen and nutrients to thebody tissues and takes away Carbon IV Oxide (MedicineNet.com, 2016).

Cardiovascularresponse to stress – entails the reactions of the system topsychological stressors (MedicineNet.com, 2016).

Musicis instrumental or vocal sounds or a combination of the two, done toproduce beauty of harmony, form, and manifestation of emotion. Thereare different genres of music including pop, classical, blues, jazz,country, rock, hip-hop/rap, gospel, and R&ampB/Soul among others.

Systolicblood pressure – is the top figure which is higher, that checks thepressure within the arteries during heartbeats.

Diastolicblood pressure – is the bottom digit that measures pressure withinthe arteries in-between heartbeats.

Observationsand Previous Studies

Studieson cardiovascular reactions to stress have affirmed that excessiveheart rate reactions and blood sugar levels can destroy thecardiovascular system. In other words, individuals who portray largecardiovascular reactions are prone to development of hypertensions,and cardiovascular diseases. These states pose great threats topeople. Due to this reason, this particular study is meant todiscover the techniques that reduce or limit the magnitude of stressreactions. It provides a means by which people may understand theimpact of psychological stressors on the cardiovascular operation.

Question

Ismusic effective in decreasing cardiovascular reactions to stress, oris one genre more beneficial than another?

Hypothesis

Thehypothesis is that music decreases post-stress blood pressure risesand is dependent on the genre.

Experiment

Theindependent variable in this experiment was undergraduate studentsfrom different universities.

Thedependent variables include jazz music, pop, classical, and no music.

Theconstant variables include diastolic and systolic blood pressures andthe heart rate

Controland experiment group

Thecontrol group, in this case, was exposed to stresses but did notlisten to music instead, they were subjected to silence.

Theexperimental group was subjected to different styles of music. Fourchose classical music, five jazz, and six top 40 music selections. Intotal, 15 participants were subjected to music.

Descriptionof the experiment and data collection

Participantswere first subjected to a three minutes arithmetic task where theexperimenter stressed them. After stress, they were given ten minutesto recover. During this time, members were allotted different genresof music, i.e. classical, jazz, or pop music and no-choice. In theno-choice state, participants sat quietly, i.e. no music was put(control condition). Their heart rate and blood pressure wereobserved in the three states, i.e. baseline, stressor, and recoveryphases.

Theheart rate, diastolic, and systolic blood pressures were recordedutilizing the Ohmeda Finapres 2300 blood pressure monitor. After thetime to recover elapsed, the samples were asked to fill a State/TraitInventory Form A to ascertain their anxiety. Additionally, gradingwas done on a 7-point Likert-type measures, “how did the mentalmath arouse their anxiety?”(5/4 not anxious at all to 29/4 veryanxious), “the length of time they spent thinking about the task ofmental math as the music was on?” or the no-choice state, “in theten minutes” (5/4 no time to 29/4 whole time). The music memberswere asked two more queries: “how acquainted are you with thechoice of music you listened?” (5/4 never heard it earlier to 29/4often hears it) and “how relaxing is the choice of music youheard?” (5/4 not relaxing at all to 29/4 very relaxing) (Chafin,2004).

and Interpretation of Results

Baselinemeasures

Duringthe initial state, there was no considerable dissimilarity regardingreliant physiological measures, maximum Fð4 70Þ ¼ 1:88 fordiastolic B.P, all PS: 20:

Stressmanagement check

Diastolicblood pressure increased by 13.4 mm Hg, Systolic by 19.5 mmHg, andheart rate of 10.4 bpm after the mathematical test. No considerablechange was seen in the cardiovascular between the baseline period anda mathematical test for the physiological events, maximum Fð4 70Þ¼ 0:55 for heart frequency, all PS: 70 [ CITATION Cha04 l 1033 ]:

Musiccondition

Figure1: The consequences of music after stressful moments on systolicblood pressure (variation from baseline).

Regardingsystolic blood pressure, music had a considerable impact on recovery,Fð4 70Þ ¼ 2:69 PS: 04. As depicted by n Tukey HSD, there isconsiderable disparity between the control conditions and classicalstates. Classical tunes returned Systolic B.P nearer the baseline (M¼ 2:1 mm Hg) than the no-choice (M ¼ 10:8 mm Hg) (Chafin, 2004).The above figure showcases the changes in systolic blood pressureabout all the states. Results on diastolic blood pressure were alsosimilar to the systolic ones in the recovery phase, though it wasconsiderable between the states, Fð4 70Þ ¼ 1:85 PS.: 13:

Figure2: The impact of music after stressful moments on diastolic bloodpressure (variation from baseline).

Thoughthe systolic blood pressure disparities give the solitarystatistically significant outcome, the control state had greaterrates of cardiovascular reactions in recovery than the rest of thephysiological measures. The table below accurately shows scores inthe different variables.

Table1: Average recovery time cardiovascular alteration from baselinescores for each condition

Condition

Systolic B.P.

Diastolic B.P.

Heart rate

Classical ðn ¼ 15Þ

2.09 (4.65)

0.66 (3.67)

–3.03 (3.08)

Jazz ðn ¼ 15Þ

9.19 (11.50)

4.37 (6.14)

–2.31 (4.83)

Top 40 ðn ¼ 15Þ

7.88 (7.52)

3.66 (4.24)

–3.07 (5.82)

Choice ðn ¼ 15Þ

8.31 (7.38)

2.85 (3.49)

–2.61 (2.72)

Control ðn ¼ 15Þ

10.83 (6.36)

4.81 (5.26)

–1.64 (2.67)

Discussion

Theresearch can be augmented through the use of more scientificallyproven measures. In other words, basing the findings on humanassumptions is prone to error. For instance, questionnaires can begiven to the participants after the recovery period. Use of Holter orevent monitor could be used to make the experiment even better(American Heart Association, 2015). The two record EKG rhythmcontinuously to detect any abnormalities. In general, use of morescientific approaches to conducting the tests would provide moreaccurate results than the participants’ assumptions. Thisexperiment is quite appropriate to the modern world. Many researchstudies have been done to determine the effects of cardiovascularreaction to stress, but few have come up with remedies. This studyprovides the most basic tactic of avoiding high cardiovascularreactions to stress through music. Cool music can help to alleviatecardiovascular issues.

References

American Heart Association. (2015, October 21). Common Tests for Congenital Heart Defects. Retrieved from Common Tests for Congenital Heart Defects: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/SymptomsDiagnosisofCongenitalHeartDefects/Common-Tests-for-Congenital-Heart-Defects_UCM_307412_Article.jsp#.V4dy1jVjLK8

Chafin, S. R. (2004). Music can facilitate blood pressure recovery from stress. British Journal of Psychology, 393-403.

MedicineNet.com. (2016, May 13). Definition of Cardiovascular. Retrieved from Definition of Cardiovascular: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=18311