ScienceBodies of Knowledge

ScienceBodies of Knowledge


Evaluationof scientific discoveries is a critical part in determining theposition of any medical breakthrough. Because many scientists arestruggling to come up with innovations, there are already variouscriteria for determining if a finding can rank in the top 10. Theprocedures involve critical assessment of new facts so that the bestones can be picked and listed.

Thefirst approach is the evaluation of authority. This criterionattempts to find if the information is new and not duplicate.Secondly, there is the analysis of accuracy. Lastly, the facts areexamined for their level of currency. It involves critical assessmentto determine proofs of newly added findings.

Unfortunately,these criteria are insufficientin making resolutions. Theymay lead to omission of discoveries because they do not favorscientists who cannot reach the evaluators.

Thisform of ranking is based on the ability of a publication to sell.Since it directs people to materials describing the medicalbreakthroughs, it becomes difficult for readers to see otherlistings. Therefore, these criteria need to be reviewed.

Q.2:As brought out in the article, education of solidarity is a way ofdeveloping and supporting how people understand the meaning ofexercising power collectively. It brings individuals into a singlelearning mission and incorporates communalism into education.

Q.3:The scientific method at work helps in asking and answering technicalquestions through observations and experiments. Pasteur disprovedspontaneous generation by demonstrating how the air is alwaysoccupied with microorganisms. Through his view, it became easy forpeople to understand the importance of scientific techniques.

Q.4:A theory is a hypothesis about a particular phenomenon based onlogical research. An example of a theory is the notion that the Earthis divided into concrete platters that have relocated overgeographical periods.

Q.5:The information bearing components of DNA are the four nitrogenousbases including the adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine, and thymine.The DNA is located in the nucleus. m-RNA stands for messenger-RNA andconveys genetic information from DNA.

Q.6:The earlier pioneers in psychology included Wihelm Wundt, WilliamJames, John B. Watson, and Mary Whiton Calkins. Structuralismsuggests that information is well perceived when the brain isinvolved while functionalism suggests that the mind controls everycognitive process.

Q.7:Homeostasis is the predisposition toward a comparatively stablebalance between symbiotic elements. Through homeostasis, heat isexchanged between an animal’s body and the environment viaevaporation, radiation, conduction or convection.

Q.8:Diabetes mellitus is a condition that causes high blood sugar levelswhereas diabetes insipidus is an ailment that disables waterconservation properties of the kidneys. Diabetes insipidus is a rareinfection, but diabetes mellitus is relatively common.

Q.9:Dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter. Low levels of neurotransmittersmay result in attention deficits, anxiety, cognitive impairment,confusion, depersonalization, hopelessness, disorganized thinking andfatigue.

Q.10:Often, bullies are socially-stressed individuals and the traumachanges the levels of their vasopressin. Too many vasopressins leadto amplified aggression which makes one have the urge to inflict painand intimidate.

Q.11:There have been discoveries of more than 4,000 exoplanets amongstwhich over 1600 have been confirmed as real. Astronauts have led inthe discovery of millions of planets in the galaxy. Most of these arealmost the size of the Earth.

Q.12:Mars and Titan are some of the exoplanets that have been alleged toprovide life. They have relatively similar sizes and ranges oftemperature as the Earth. Additionally, they have enormous waterbodies.

Q.13:An example of homeopathic medicine is the Allium cepa. It originatedfrom the Middle East and it is used as a remedy for common cold andfever. The watery part is squeezed and smeared on the forehead or inthe nostrils.


Rossing,J., &amp Hoffmann-Longtin, K. (2016). Making Science Make Sense:Applied Improvisation in Health and Life Sciences.