Section1: Concept map
Relationship between Leadership Styles and the Impacts it has on Employee Satisfaction
Value Based Leadership
Management by Exception
Increase in staff productivity
Increase in employee loyalty
Increase in employee commitment
SECTION2: Literature Review
Thissectionfocuseson how previous studies have addressed the relationship betweenleadership styles and what combinations of factors influence employeesatisfaction at a business banking financial institution. The topicto be discussed in this section includes: background information ofthe literature review, discuss on leadership styles and theories,contemporary theory of leadership, value based leadership, jobsatisfaction, employee loyalty, employee productivity and employeecommitment.
Leadershipis an important aspect in facilitating growth and performance of abusiness. The role of leadership in the contemporary businesses hasundergone changes and since change is inevitable, corporateorganizations have to develop means of implementing changes in theleadership roles (Yammarino,Dionne, Chun and Dansereau (2005, p.879-919). Effectiveleadership is an essential factor in enhancing organizationalefficiency. Organizational efficiency is contributed by many factors,with job satisfaction being the most crucial factor in promotingefficiency. Employees are an important aspect in the organizationthat promotes efficiency of the business. Effective leadershipmotivates and encourages employees in order to obtain satisfactoryoutcomes for the company (Bader,Hashim & Zaharim, 2013, p.30-44).
Leadershipof any organization has a strong effect on the type of attitude thatemployees develop towards their jobs and the organization at large.Having the right leader is important in promoting job satisfaction.The role of leadership teams in organizations have changed over time,where the success of the company is now influenced by the leadershipstyles adopted by leaders (Omar, 2013, p. 347 and Belias, 2014, p.24). Leaders influence employees’ love to their job in many ways,including the establishment of a favourable working environment (Yun,2007, p. 187) engaging members of staff in decision making (Long,2014, p. 122) developing an organizational culture that is acceptableto employees, and developing a vision that takes account of the needsof the organization as well as the needs of employees (Arzi, 2014, p.123).
Leadership Styles and Theories
Thebanking and financial institutions are searching for new and creativemethods to achieve competitive edge in the current recession crisisaffecting the global world. The growing recession crisis has promptedthe banking institutions to develop effective leadership styles toenhance their potential in the competitive marketplace. Javed,Jaffari and Rahim (2014, p. 41-50) believesthat current organizations require to have leaders who posses specialcharacteristics such as being proactive, dynamic and knowledgeable togenerate fundamental changes within the organization. Studiesindicated that the leadership styles implemented by organizationshave great influence on the behaviour of employees and satisfy theirneeds.
Leadershipstyles play significant roles in contributing towards achievingorganizational goals. Victorand Soutar (2005)have identified leadership style to be among the factors thatfacilitate improved performance of the banking institutions.Effective leadership styles enable leaders to develop strategies thatpush employees to complete their assigned tasks and provide optimalresults. This is especially important in a banking sector. Thesuccess of the banking institution is highly dependent on theleadership style implemented in the organization. Examples ofleadership styles commonly used in organizations includetransactional leadership, transformational leadership and value-basedleadership (Bateh& Heyliger, 2014).
Leadershipstyle is a significant determinant on the job satisfaction ofemployees in the banking institution. It impacts both directly andindirectly on the employees’ job satisfaction. A leader whodisplays a sense of appreciation of employees work provides them witha positive experience thereby increasing their job satisfaction.Leadership style is a significant aspect in determining theproductiveness of banking institutions. The integration of positiveleadership style increases the production of employees in banks andfinancial institutions. The banking institutions have changed theircentre of attention on leadership in order to facilitate employees’satisfaction and improve their productivity. Employees’satisfaction will promote effectiveness in employees’ performance,enhance customer satisfaction and increase organizational profits(Razi,Azadi, Farsani & Aroufzad, 2013, p.7-10).
Itis said that leaders are born and not made. Nevertheless, canleadership be developed? (Hendrikson, 2006). The trait theory ofleadership is based on the notion that leaders are born and they havespecial inheritable traits that distinguish them from non-leaders.Some of core traits of effective organizational leaders include theachievement drive, honesty, self-confidence, integrity, cognitiveability, and emotional intelligence (Guillaume, 2013, p. 446).Although the trait theory of leadership is still important to-date,researchers discovered in the 1940s that the personality traits alonewere insufficient to predict the effectiveness of a leader, whichnecessitated the development of other leadership theories.
Thebehavioural theory of leadership is a complete departure from thebasic assumptions of the trait theory. Behavioural theorists look atwhat individual leaders do, rather than their inborn traits, whenassessing the leadership effectiveness (Rizi, 2013, p. 7). Inaddition, the behavioural theory holds that leadership can belearned. This implies that leaders can learn different strategiesthat are needed in different work settings and workgroups.
Thecontingency theory is founded on the assumption that the leadershipeffectiveness is dependent on the situation. The theory holds that aleader may be effective in one situation and less effective inanother situation since leadership strategies are notone-size-fit-all (Vroom, 2007, p. 17). Leaders who believe in thecontingency theory apply different leadership strategies depending onthe nature of the task and make-up of the group that is being led(Kriyantono, 2012, p. 124).
Contemporary theories of leadership
Overthe years, scholars and researchers have introduced new leadershipapproaches and theories. For example, the transformative leadershipis a contemporary leadership approach in which the leaders involvethe followers in the process of identifying the need for change,developing the vision that will guide the organization towards thechange, and inviting committed members to take part in theimplementation of change (Ali, 2013, p. 9). Rather than focusing onthe traits and behaviours of the leader, transformational leadershipapproach holds that both the leader and the people being led have theresponsibility of elevating the level of human interaction andconduct of each other (Goertzen, 2010, p. 83 and Bushra, 2011, p.261). This indicates that contemporary theories are increasinglyfocusing on the characteristics of the leaders and the people beingled.
Studieshave indicated that transactional leadership has positive impacts onemployees in banking institutions. Transactional leadership promotesjob satisfaction among employees, which in turn contributes toincreased employee commitment, productivity and employee loyalty(Kaur,2012, p.126-133).In transactional leadership, rewards and disciplines are dependentupon the execution of the adherents (Cherry, 2013). The leader seesthe relationship between managers and subordinates as a trade – yougive me something for something consequently. At the point whensubordinates perform well, they get some sort of reward. When theyperform inadequately, they will be disciplined somehow. Guidelines,systems and measures are significant to transactional leadership.Transactional leaders, with respect to fulfilling their ownparticular self-interest practice control procedures to inspiresubordinates to perform in a specific way (Kanungo, 2001).
Transactionalleadership focuses on social interactions and transitions betweenleaders and employees to enhance job satisfaction. It managesorganizations and evaluates employees’ performance to ensure theorganization accomplishes their current objectives effectively. Theyensure achievement of organizational goals by associating employeeperformance with valued rewards. The leaders ensure compliance ofemployees with the code of conduct through rewarding good performanceand punishment on employees who violate the organizationsregulations. The leaders identify the needs of employees, provideemployees with resources needed to perform their duties and offerrewards for satisfactory performances. The leaders ensure jobsatisfaction through observing employees’ performance and respondto mistakes and failures of employees. According to Arziand Farahbod (2014, p. 171-186),transactional leaders motivate their employees by providing them withawareness on their roles within the organization and the requirementsof the tasks assigned to them.
Transactionalleadership involves various theoretical components includingcontingent rewards and management exception. Contingent rewards referto the level that the leaders organize for productive transactionswith employees. The leader has clear objectives and expectations andcommunicates the work achievement of employees that will make themobtain rewards. Leaders provide rewards and incentives to employeesto influence their motivation and enhance better performance.
Activemanagement exception is a kind of theoretical concept used when aleader conducts corrective action on their employees due to poorperformance or noncompliance. It is divided into two categoriesnamely: passive corrective transactions and active correctivetransactions. In passive transactions, leaders intervene only ifemployees fail to meet the organizational standards in their jobperformance. Active corrective transactions involve leadersconducting observations and searches for employees who have violatedthe rules and have not met the performance standards among employees.Leaders execute corrective actions against employees with poorperformance in efforts to ensure the established standards are met topromote achievement of organizational goals.
Transformationalleadership is currently considered to be the most popular leadershipused in different organizations globally. This type of leadershiptakes control of a situation by passing on a clear vision of thegroup`s objectives, a marked passion for the work, and a capacity tomake the rest of the group feel revived and invigorated.Transformational leadership is the kind of initiative that canmotivate positive changes in individuals who follow. These typeleaders are by and large passionate, energetic, and enthusiastic.They act as role models, who have the ability to inspire confidencethey value creativity and autonomy, and recognize individual needs.Not only are these leaders concerned and involved in the processthey are also focused on helping every member of the group succeed aswell (Cherry, 2013). Most of the studies and scales that have beendeveloped indicate that the transformational leadership is a reliablepredictor of job satisfaction (Tischler, 2016, p. 1). Therefore,transformational leadership provides a suitable concept for studyingthe impact of leadership on the employee satisfaction.
Studiesreveal that transformational leadership is very effective andcomprehensive in enhancing job satisfaction in banking institutions.It is involved in managing behaviours of employees with the aim ofincreasing employees trust on their leader. Transformationalleadership motivates employees by enhancing the interest of theiremployees through creating awareness. Creating awareness generateschanges within the organization thereby increasing the interest ofemployees towards work (Shibru & Darshan,2011, p. 334-344).
Transformationalleadership creates an active and innovative environment throughcommunication, rewards and the policies of the banking and financialinstitutions. They inspire employees to focus towards accomplishingorganizational vision. According to Ramachandran andKrishnan (2009, p. 23-28) the findings of several studies revealedthat employees serving under transformational leaders reported tohave increased motivation and job satisfaction. Similarly, studies byKrishnan (2004, p.58-72) reveal that transformational leaders usuallyprovide their employees with a complete experience in their work andenableemployees to identify with the mission and goals oftheir leader. Additionally, according to Givens (2008, p.4-24),employees perceive transformational leaders to friendly, helpful andhave the ability to bring change into the organization.
Transformationalleadership impacts on job satisfaction through different types ofbehaviors. These behaviors include:
Idealized Influence describes leaders who act as strong roles models for their employees. A transformational leader builds an environment that facilitates respect and loyalty among employees. It accentuates on the significance of strong commitment among employees to achieve organizational goals. The leader inculcates faith in their employees through enhancing respect and trust. According to Gill, Flaschner, Shah and Bhutani (2010), leaders provide vision and mission and set high standards of behavior for their employees to emulate. Leaders exercising such conduct stimulates strong emotions among employees and be able to identify with their leaders.
Inspirational motivation explains leaders who promote the commitment of their employees to their work by creating a motivating environment for employees. Felfe, Tartler and Liepmann (2004, p.261-289) states that inspirational leaders communicate motivating visions to their employees by use of symbols to enhance understanding of employees on their expectations. Inspirational leaders’ molds appropriate behaviors among employees within the organization.
Intellectual stimulation describes leaders who create creativity among employees and assist employees to accomplish the organizational initiatives. The leaders enhance employees’ creativity by providing them with challenging tasks. These actions also help employees to generate solutions to challenging problems. The intellectual stimulation enhances the employee awareness on various challenges experienced at workplace and provides them with new perspective of addressing these challenges (Bushra, Usman & Naveed 2011, p.261-267).
Individualized consideration describes leaders who focus on identifying and meeting the needs of their employees to enhance their job satisfaction. Accordingly, the leader assigns different organizational responsibilities to their employees to improve their growth and performance. The leaders as well act as mentors to promote growth and enhance achievement of their employees.
Theconcept of value-based leadership holds that the values that areupheld by the organization and the values of individual leaders aswell as employees should be aligned (Coperland, 2014, p. 106).Organizations that invest in value-based leadership communicateorganization’s core values to employees with the objective ofconnecting the personal values of individual employees with the corevalues of the organization, which ensures that the members of staffidentify strongly with the company and its mission (Voon, 2011, p.26). Yukl(2008) explainsthat value-based leadership cultivates positive attitudes amongemployees that promote sustainable development within organizations.Leaders who run their organization based on values develop a commonset of beliefs on goals that take into consideration the needs anddifferences among employees. The beliefs and values allow the leaderto determine the behaviours of individual employees and identifytheir areas of weakness.
Servantleadership theory is among the perspectives that are based on theconcept of value-based leadership. Robert Greenfield defined servantleadership as a way of life that starts with the development of anatural feeling that one would like to serve, rather than beingserved (McCann, 2014, p. 29). The major characteristic thatdistinguishes servant leaders from traditional leaders is the factthat servant leaders aim at facilitating the growth as well as thewell-being of their followers. Other characteristics of a servantleader include hearing, listening, foresight, awareness, empathy, andconceptualization (Coperland, 2014, p. 106).
Thecurrent global recession is a challenge to the banking and financialinstitutions. Job satisfaction has become an important aspect inenhancing the performance of banks and financial institutions toovercome the recession challenge in the global economy. Jobsatisfaction can be used to determine the attitudes of employeestowards their work (Jegan& Gnanadhas, 2011, p 1-8). Itcan also be used as an indicator of employees conduct at work such ascommitment in achieving organizational goals. Studies indicate thatleadership is a process that involves influencing employees andcreating an environment that will encourage them to enhanceproductivity. Phil(2009)observes that fulfilling the needs of employees makes them to enjoytheir work. Employee enjoyment of their work is a motivating factorthat contributes to increased job satisfaction. Additionally,Emhan (2012, p.179-190) explainsthat providing employees with stimulating and challenging jobspromotes employee satisfaction. Job satisfaction provides theorganization with various long term benefits including improvement ofperformance for both employees and the organization in general,improved quality and increased employee participation indecision-making process.
Jobsatisfaction among employees is among the key factors that determinethe employee’s tendency to continue working for a givenorganization and demonstrate maximum dedication at work. Satisfiedemployees make significant contributions towards achievingorganizational goals and objectives. According to Belias,Koustelios, Sdrolias and Koutiva (2013, p.18-18)the components of job satisfaction include promotion opportunity,supervision, pay, work, colleagues and enjoying the work. Jobsatisfaction refers to employee’s attitude towards their job ortheir emotional reaction towards their current work environment(Ghosbanian, 2012, p. 2 and Tsai, 2011, p. 2). According to Wicker(2011) job satisfaction is a sense of pride and inner fulfilmentachieved when doing a particular job. Spector, (1997) advice that jobfulfilment is what the individual feel about their job either theylike or dislike their job, liking shows the satisfaction or dislikingshows the dissatisfaction of employees. This attitude results fromemployees’ evaluation of results against their expectations. Poorleadership styles lead to dissatisfaction among employees. AccordingtoAppiah-Agyekum, Suapim and Peprah (2013,p.43-50) poor job satisfaction affects employee performance therebyhindering organizational success. Studies have shown that effectivemanagement of variables that are likely to influence behaviour ofemployees affects their performance levels and discretionary efforts(Josanov, 2014, p. 45). The relationship between the management offactors influencing employees’ behaviour and their performanceindicates that members of staff feel motivated when the organizationsaddress issues that affect them. Other studies have shown thatintrinsic motivation influence employees’ personal emotional andpersonal perception state, which leads to job satisfaction (Malik,2013, p. 212). Studies focusing on the relationship between extrinsicmotivation and job satisfaction have shown that members of staff feelmore satisfied and demonstrate their willingness to stay with theirpresent employer company when receive salary, promotion, and benefitsthat they feel are commensurate to amount of work done (Saleem, 2015,p. 565).
Severalstudies have been carried out to identify how transitionalleadership, transformational leadership and value-based leadershipinfluence employee job satisfaction. Studies by Yangand Chang (2008, p.879-887) assertthat employee perception towards the leadership conduct varied basedon the leadership style exercised by their leaders. The growingcompetition in the banking and financial institution requiresemployees to improve their performance and enhance customersatisfaction. However, employee performance is highly dependent onthe leadership style and the level of job satisfaction. Severalstudies have revealed that the three leadership styles mentionedabove have significant positive impacts on the employee satisfactionin their work. The results finding by Weiss (2002, p.173-194) confirmthat transformational and transactional leadership styles promotesincrease in employee satisfaction in the banking sector. However,studies reveal that transformational leadership has major positiveeffect in facilitating job satisfaction.
Jobsatisfaction is measured using several variables, but one of the mosteffective measures is employee commitment. Yousef(2000, p.6-24)defines employee commitment as the identification of organizationalgoals by employees and display their loyalty and attachment towardsachieving these goals. Employee commitment can be used to determinethe employee behaviour through their performance, attitude andemotional attachment towards work and absenteeism. Studies haverevealed that effective leadership style enhances employee jobsatisfaction thereby increasing employee commitment to achieveorganizational goals. Employee commitment generates various benefitsto the organization including improving delivery of quality services,enhances customer loyalty and generates huge profits to theorganization (Gulup,Klein & Jaing 2008, p.58-68).
Studieshave established a positive correlation between job satisfaction andemployee commitment as well the demonstration of loyalty to theemployer organization (Susan, 2011, p. 509 and Bateh, 2012, p. 25). Asimilar study conducted by McCann (2012) indicated that employees whohave a perception that their leaders apply the transformationalleadership model are 85 % likely to feel motivated and 79 % of themdemonstrate high levels of commitment and loyalty. A combination ofjob satisfaction, commitment, and loyalty results in substantialincrease in performance of individual employees and the organization.Employees demonstrate their commitment through positive behaviour,attitude towards the organization as well the organization’sleadership, and intention to continue working for the organization(Amin, 2013, p. 96, Stander, 2014, p. 27 and Ding, 2012, p. 2).
Leadershipbegins with an individual leader with vision and implements thenecessary strategies to accomplish organizational goals.Organizations such as the banking financial institutions need to haveleaders with high influence power on its staff to promote jobsatisfaction and influence employee commitment (Bader,Hashim & Zaharim, 2013, p.30-44).This answers the research question, by indicating thattransformational leadership improve job satisfaction, which isconfirmed by an increase in commitment, loyalty, and performance ofemployees who believe that they are led by good leaders.
Accordingto Amin (2013, p. 96), and Stander (2014, p. 27), effectiveleadership promotes a spirit of cooperation among employees.Cooperation enhances a sense of commitment and satisfactionempowering them to improve on their performance and work towardsachieving organizational goals. Studies by Jeganand Gnanadhas (2011, p 1-8) reveal that in order for leaders topromote employee satisfaction and commitment in the banking andfinancial institution, they should develop strong frameworks formotivating employees at various levels within the organization.Therefore, effective leadership style and employee satisfaction isvery significant in enhancing employee commitment, which in turnpromotes success in the banking and financial institution.
Jobsatisfaction and good leadership style increases employee loyalty tothe leader and the organization. Employee loyalty is a vital aspectin an organization and has major impact on performance. Employeeloyalty enhances staff compliance to the rules and laws of theorganization, which contributes to improvement of employeeperformance. Good leadership style creates an excellent relationshipbetween the leaders and employees. It contributes towards creatingsatisfied, loyal, and productive employees that encourage employee todeliver quality services to customers. Satisfied customers in turncontribute to increased profits and growth in the organization(Aydin,Sarier & Uysal, 2013, p.806-811)
Employeeloyalty is very crucial in the banking sector. According to Gumbang,Suki and Suki (2010, p.1-13),employee loyalty increases employee commitment to achievingorganizational goals and become accountable to their performancethereby increasing their productivity. Employee loyalty enablesleaders to have high expectation from their employees promotingorganizational success.The results findings by Aydin, Sarier and Uysal (2013, p.806-811)reveal that existence of employee loyalty in the organizationfacilitates greater efficiencies in the relationship between leadersand their employees. Effective leadership style develops initiativesthat contribute towards improving trust and loyalty, which promotesachievement of long term benefits.
Effectiveleaders show care to their employees by listening to their opinionson how to improve their performance. Through this, a leader is ableto develop corporate cultures that will support the services ofemployees thereby enhancing their loyalty. Additionally, effectiveleadership builds trust and respect among their employees, whichempowers them to effectively carry out the assigned tasks. Studies byGumbang, Suki and Suki (2010, p.1-13),indicate that employees who trust and respect their leaders feelmotivated to provide efficient services that promotes excellentperformance. Employee loyalty will as well reduce incidences ofemployee turnover, which contributes greatly to delivery ofhigh-quality services within the organization.
Employeeproductivity is an essential aspect in an organization. It isimportant for leaders to have the understanding of the significanceof the human element in the organization. Effective leadershipembrace the presence of employees and understands their importance inpromoting quality and productivity gains by the organization(Vieira, 2009, p. 269-291).According to Voon,Lo2, Ngui and Ayob2 (2011, p.24-32), effective leadership promotescooperation and instills a sense of satisfaction and commitment amongemployees that increases employee productivity. Employee productivitycan be improved through developing strong levels of motivation indifferent areas of their work.
Lackof employee loyalty can cripple success of banking and financialinstitutions. According to Al-Kahtaniand Allam (2000, p.92-99),employee productivity depends on the leadership style exhibited byleadership. If leaders do not relate well with their employees, thenemployees will tend to not follow leaders with do not strongstandards in their behaviour. Studies by Voon,Lo2, Ngui and Ayob2 (2011, p.24-32),indicate that low levels of loyalty among employees leads toorganizational decay and inefficiency in organizational performance.Therefore, organizations should prioritize on caring for itsemployees by meeting their needs.
Vieira(2009, p.269-291)believes that taking care of employees generates various advantagesto the organization such as improved employee performance that haslong term positive effects. It is important for leaders todemonstrate consistency in their behaviours between their actions andwords in order to promote development of employee satisfaction.
Jobsatisfaction can also be measured through employees’ productivity.Howell and Costley (2006) define employee productivity as evaluationof the efficiency of employee in their work. Employee productivity ismeasured through their inputs and output in the organization.Satisfied employees provide high and quality level of performanceincreasing their productivity within the organization. Employeeproductivity is an essential asset that promotes organizationalsuccess.
Accordingto Vieira (2009, p. 269-291), employees’ productivity can beenhanced through improving working conditions of employees,compensating them and establishing of favorable policies that wouldencourage improved performance. An effective leader would increaseemployee productivity by providing employees with training, andimprove their job performance.
Howelland Costley (2006), states that low employees’ productivity resultsin poor delivery of service thereby affecting organizationalperformance. Providing strong leadership and to employees andmentorship would promote job satisfaction thereby improving employeeproductivity. Employees’ productivity generates long term benefitsto employees such as increased profits and competency of the bankingand financial institutions.
Leadershipis an important aspect in facilitating growth and performance of abusiness. Organizational efficiency is contributed by many factors,with job satisfaction being the most crucial factor in promotingefficiency. Organizations such as the banking financialinstitutions need to have leaders with high influence power on itsstaff to promote job satisfaction. Leadership styles playsignificant roles in contributing towards achieving theorganizational goals. The three leadership styles discussed in thispaper include transformational leadership,transactional leadership and value-based leadership. Transactionalleadership has a positive impact on employees in banking institution.It promotes job satisfaction among employees, which influencesemployee commitment, increases employee productivity and increaseemployee loyalty. Transformational leadership is very effective andcomprehensive in enhancing job satisfaction in banking institutions.It is involved in managing behaviours of employees with the aim ofincreasing employees trust on their leader. Value-based leadershipcultivates positive attitudes among employees that promotesustainable development within organizations. Leaders who run theirorganization based on values develop a common set of beliefs on goalsthat take into consideration the needs and differences amongemployees. Job satisfaction among employees is among the key factorsthat determine the employee’s tendency to continue working for agiven organization and demonstrate maximum dedication at work.Therefore, satisfied employees make significant contributions towardsachieving organizational goals and objectives.
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