StatisticalAnalysis and Research


Thestudy sought to examine how the use of praise notes to students wouldaffect the level and the frequency of the Office DisciplineReferrals. The correlational statistical test was used since themeasure used above examines the association between two primaryvariables the use of praise notes and the behaviour by studentsreceiving the praises from teachers.


Nelsonet al. (2010) notes that the study examined how praise notes’usage, by teachers, as well as reinforcement of such notes among thescholars would influence Office Discipline Referrals. Further, thestudy noted that the current school system uses reactionary responsesin schoolwide management. Punitive measures are the top of thediscipline agenda for students demonstrating violent and wrongfulbehaviour. The rationale for using a correlational approach on howpraise notes would foster positive behavioural change was underpinnedby selected motivations praise notes are preventive, they help tocontrol behaviour long before the occurrence of an indiscipline case,and aim to promote a positive learning environment.

Personally,the correlational statistical test was a significant one. It iscorrect as it aims to examine how behaviour can be promoted,improved, and enhanced long before it occurs. Most importantly forthe statistical test was to appraise how positive relationshipsbetween teachers and students could affect the office disciplinereferrals that most students received. The study utilized continuousvariables since the requirements of earning gift card by teachers whoadhered to a higher number of praise notes increased throughout thesecond year of the study (Nelson et al., 2010). As much as possible,the research adjusted the variables [gift cards and praise notes] astime passed to make it possible to track changes in behaviourthroughout the study period.


Theresearch question presented in this study was: How does ateacher-written praise note address a positive environment in middleschool? The use of praise notes, which were written and signed byteachers, as well as the number [or frequency] of office disciplinereferral cases in middle school were examined by the correlationaltest. 70 teachers were selected and 1,809 sixth and 7thgrade students. Students who received praise notes had names enteredin a weekly chart for a candy bar. At the beginning of the study, thenumbers of praise notes were very low, 0-2 notes for every a hundredstudents on a daily basis (Nelson et al., 2010). The rate of praisenotes was however increased by giving teachers reinforcements throughgift cards. Correlational test was therefore significant in examiningthe rate of praise notes, the students who received the notes, andthe frequency of ODR cases. The findings revealed a negativecorrelation between the number of ODR received by students and thepraise notes given by teachers.


Adistrict-maintained database combined with the number of praise noteswritten in the 2005/6 and 2006/7 school years was used to track theresults. Nelson et al. (2010) posits that the two variables were thenanalysed through the quantitative approach using a SPSS softwareversion 15.0. The number of praise notes, written through the years,as well as the ODR letters, given throughout the study period, wasexamined using bivariate correlation.

Thedata was alsointerpreted separately through a sub-group of students.More clearly, the study examined whether students, receiving one ormore ODR, had received a praise note as well as whether students, whoreceived the praise notes, received an office discipline referral.Over the course of the study period, a total of 14,527 praise noteswere written and signed by teachers as compared to 2,143 ODRs in thesame period (Nelson et al. 2010). The interpretation of data revealeda negative relationship between the recorded office disciplinereferrals and the number of written praises. The interpretationshowed that praise notes influenced students to embrace socialskills, and to improve behaviour and conduct in middle schoolsettings.


Nelson,J. A. P., Young, B. J., Young, E. J., &amp Cox, G. (2010). Usingteacher-written praise notes to promote a positive environment in amiddle school. PreventingSchool Failure, 54(2),119-125