TheEffect of Smoking on Patient`s Health Compared with Non-Smoking inCoronary Artery Disease

TheEffect of Smoking on Patient`s Health Compared with Non-Smoking inCoronary Artery Disease

Today,almost every individual embraces the fact that cigarette smokesignificantly increases the risk of breathing difficulties and lungcancer among patients. However, few people have the desired knowledgeconcerning the way tobacco and cigarette smoking greatly increasesthe risk of other illnesses, as well as, increased mortality ratesfor patients with coronary heart disease (Cunningham, Eke, Ford,Agaku, Wheaton &amp Croft, 2016). Indeed, cigarette smokingadversely affects almost all human organs, both external and internalorgans. As such, passive or active smoking has been associated withthe prevalence of numerous illnesses, as well as, negativelyimpacting on the health of patients exposed to cigarette smoke.Quitting smoking and avoiding the exposure to tobacco and cigarettesmoke has the direct effect of ensuring a patient’s risk to sufferfrom smoking-related ailments is notably reduced and by extension,translating to a healthier and longer life (Cunningham et al., 2016).This paper endeavors to employ the PICOT format to address theeffects of smoking on patient’s health in comparison to non-smokingpatients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) by focusing on adult malepopulations residing in the US.

Whysmoking is a Problem?

Accordingto reports published by the US Surgeon General, cigarette smoking ‘isthe leading but preventable cause of death and disease in thecountry,’ (Alberg, Shopland &amp Cummings, 2014). Coronary heartdisease (CHD) also referred to as CAD inhibits the functions andstructure of a patient’s arterial vessels and heart (Alberg et al.,2014). Cigarette smoking also negatively affects the blood cellsincreasing a patient’s susceptibility to contractingatherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a sickness of the heart andarteries which stem from the buildup of plaque in a patient’sarteries (Alberg et al., 2014). The consistent buildup of plaqueresults in the narrowing and hardening of blood vessels such that,the supply of oxygenated blood to other organs and body parts isconsiderably limited. The blockage of blood vessels greatly affectsthe pumping of blood, which means that these patients risk sufferingfrom heart attacks and high blood pressure.

Atherosclerosisleads to patients developing CAD which, often leads to chest pains,heart failure, heart attack, arrhythmias and eventually, death(Alberg et al., 2014). It has been scientifically established thatsmoking is a primary risk factor to CAD (Samet, 2013). As such, ifcombined with other significant risk factors like high bloodpressure, high levels of blood cholesterol, and obesity, cigarettesmoking extensively contributes to CAD prevalence among patients.Equally, smoking affects the arteries which deliver oxygenated bloodto the limbs, organs and head, which increases the risk to sufferheart attack, heart disease and stroke (Alberg et al., 2014). In thisregards, it is imperative to note that smoking not only increases thecomplexity of coronary heart disease, but also contributes to otherillnesses such as obesity, high blood pressure, heart attack, andultimately death.

Thepopulation affected by smoking

Therisk of suffering CAD as a result of cigarette smoking is commonlyexpressed in terms of relative risk (RR) and excess risk (Shahoumian,Phillips &amp Backus, 2016). RR is, in essence, the CAD ratio ratesfor smokers to CAD prevalence rates for lifetime nonsmokers.Conversely, excess risk appertains to the variations existing betweenrates of CAD for nonsmokers and smokers. According to Shahoumian etal. (2016), assessments of adult males’ populations were conductedfrom 2003 to 2007 are sufficient insights into the effects of smokingand non-smoking populations with CAD.

Thereare more adult smokers in the American society as compared to adultfemale smokers. Recent findings indicate that RR is at peak levelsamong populations aged between 35 and 54 years (Shahoumian et al.,2016). This trend, however, decreases considerably as age increases.Unfortunately, there are fewer populations of younger adult malepopulations with CAD in comparison to older male populations. This isbecause there are lower incidences of death from CAD in younger malepopulations in comparison to older male populations. As such, as muchas RR declines significantly as age increases, the number of olderadult males with suffering or dying from CAD increases as ageadvances onwards (Shahoumian et al., 2016). Therefore, the prevalenceof CAD in adult male smokers can be regarded to as being agespecific.

Interventionsapplied currently

Numerousinterventions have been introduced both on an individual capacity andat the societal level (Samet, 2013). For patients diagnosed with CAD,it is essential for healthcare providers to counsel these patients asit enables them to quit smoking within hospital environments. Assuch, evidence shows that patients with CAD in hospital environmentswho underwent smoking relapse prevention and self-efficacy counselingsessions led to a high number of patients successfully quitting theharmful habit (Cunningham etal.2016). Other interventions offered in an individual capacity includenicotine replacement therapy and pharmacotherapy interventions suchas controlled release bupropion, and a drug known as varenicline(Cunningham et al., 2016). Societal based intervention towardsreduction to cigarette smoke exposure includes smoking bans in socialas well as public spaces such as in parks and schools (Samet, 2013).

Recentstudies indicate that the duration and extent of smoking cessation,pharmaceutical doses, nicotine replacement interventions and thetiming of endpoint assessments are critical to further understandinghow smoking contribute to CAD prevalence (Cunningham et al., 2016).Such clinical assessments have provided that reduced or intermittentsmoking remains a potent risk factor for patients suffering CAD.These studies illustrate that the duration of smoking greatly affectsthe health of a person (Cunningham et al., 2016). In this regards, itis essential for patients to understand the danger of smoking, aswell as, cultivating practices that ensure their safety. AsCunningham et al. (2016) asserts, most people understand thatcigarette and tobacco smoke significantly increases the risk ofbreathing difficulties and lung cancer among patients. Nevertheless,most of these people do not have the necessary information thatcigarette smoking greatly raises the danger of other illnesses andmortality rates for patients with coronary heart disease.

Conclusion

Asthis paper has provided, smokers with CAD are at a higher risk ofmortality and ill health in comparison to nonsmoking patients withthe same ailment. As such smoking cessation greatly contributes tolower risks of CAD related cardiovascular morbidity as well asmortality in patients. Similarly, use of pharmacologicalinterventions aimed at smoking cessation resulted in lower risks ofheightened cardiovascular related diseases compared to risksassociated with continued smoking. In this regards, healthcareproviders should continually instruct patients with coronary arterydisease on the danger of smoking. In addition, these patients shouldbe advised to take pharmaceutical doses or using nicotine replacementinterventions. Conclusively, smoking increases the complexity of CAD,as well as, contributes to other illnesses.

References

Alberg,A. J., Shopland, D. R., &amp Cummings, K. M. (2014). The 2014Surgeon General`s report: commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the1964 Report of the Advisory Committee to the US Surgeon General andupdating the evidence on the health consequences of cigarettesmoking. Americanjournal of epidemiology, 179(4),403-412.

Cunningham,T. J., Eke, P. I., Ford, E. S., Agaku, I. T., Wheaton, A. G., &ampCroft, J. B. (2016). cigarette smoking, tooth loss, and chronicobstructive pulmonary disease: Findings from the behavioral riskfactor surveillance system. Journalof Periodontology,87(4), 385-394.

Samet,J. M. (2013). Tobacco smoking: the leading cause of preventabledisease worldwide. ThoracicSurgery Clinics, 23(2),103-112.

Shahoumian,T. A., Phillips, B. R. &amp Backus, L. I. (2016). Cigarette Smoking,reduction and quit attempts: prevalence among veterans with coronaryheart disease. PreventingChronic Disease, 13, E41.