InstitutionAffiliation

,in the context of ethical theory, means conduct that is objectivelyright. Such a conduct, under any given circumstances, creates theutmost happiness altogether (Sidgwick, 2010). In other wordsutilitarianism considers the happiness of the persons that areaffected by a particular behavior. The principlepremised upon is premised upon &quotUniversal Hedonism.&quotEgoistic Hedonism helps distinguish the concept moreprofoundly. However, the difference between ethical hedonism andegoistic hedonism is somewhat conspicuous. The first hypothesisasserts that each individual seeks his happiness, and the secondassertion posits that one should seek the happiness of all.

Consideringa case where &quotJohn buys Mary lunch,&quot one may assume thatJohn`s action resulted in the happiness of both parties. However,John may have bought Mary lunch to entice her to become hisgirlfriend, changing the initial supposition profoundly.

Theprimary challenge facing the utilitarian theory is the lack ofconnection between egoistic hedonism and ethical hedonism (Sidgwick,2010). It is troublesome to discern how these two propositions weremerged. The psychology theory, however, can be attributed to thisconfusion. It posits that the voluntary actions of all agents aredirected toward individual pleasure or happiness. Thus, because allpersons seek their happiness, the premise that these persons willseek the happiness of other people cannot be substantiated entirely.

Insum, the doctrine of Universal Happiness should not be viewed toimply that Universal Benevolence is the only motive of action. Reasonbeing, the motive to do right is not always an end in itself. Thus,if individuals act on motives that are separate from philanthropy toattain happiness, then these &quotseparate motives&quot arepreferred on utilitarian principles.

References

Sidgwick,H. (2010). The Meaning of , 1. Retrieved fromhttp://www.sophia-project.org/uploads/1/3/9/5/13955288/sidgwick_meaning.pdf