Case Study: Water Pollution in aLocal Lake

Lakes, as well as other water bodies, areecosystems that need surveillance and maintenance for a healthyenvironment. However, that is not the case with the residents ofTwins Lake since they have decided to clutter up the Lake leading towater pollution. Littering has immensely contributed to thedegradation the lake’s water quality as well as polluting theinland sea. In other words, accumulation of litter in the lagoon, aswell as the surroundings, mediates the concentration of oxygen in thewater body. The concentration of the gas reduces becausedecomposition rate of litter is quite slow and requires oxygen.Furthermore, the environment experiences the effect of this organicmatter over an extended time. Therefore, the residents shouldexercise a high degree of care in the maintenance of the pool as wellas its milieu. The human health effects of polluted water aretypically adverse and may even result in death (Kumar Reddy &ampLee, 2012).

Moreover, sediment littering has been on the risein the area due to poor land use. Sediment is the sand deposited intolakes through soil erosion. The creeks directing water into this lakeare the primary cause of this form of water pollution. People livingaround the lake have caused extreme degradation of land making iteasy for the rivulets to wash sand along as they flow and finallydepositing the materials in the lake. This sediment accumulation isharmful to aquatic life because the soil collected covers the gravelsneeded by the walleyes fish for spawning. Furthermore, the sedimentsare a major source of mercury and phosphorus that enters the lake.Soil from construction sites, farms and the erosion of fragileshorelines by boats and canoes are also contributing to the heavysediments deposited in the lake (Kumar Reddy &amp Lee, 2012).

Additionally, urban sprawl is also a majorcontributor to the lake’s pollution through clustering. Theexpansion of cities has resulted to more buildings hence, roofs,avenues and driveways cover a high percentage of the area. Snow andwater flow through these surfaces where they collect all sorts ofdetritus such as animal wastes, oils as well as agriculturalchemicals. As the collected water flows, it drains the collecteddebris into the lake and intoxicates the water. Furthermore, thisruns off and the water flows at high velocity especially duringstorms thus erupting water banks resulting to water pollution in thelake (Pollution of Lakes and Streams, 2016).

Into the bargain, agriculture has become a majorpollutant to the slough. Modern cultivation depends on agriculturalfertilisers, irrigation and herbicides to record higher yields. It isnot evident that all the fertilisers, as well as the herbicides,remain at their point of application. Some of these chemicals findtheir way into the atmosphere, gush into the ground or trickle intowater bodies. The agricultural sector also entails the rearing ofanimals. Animal wastes are pollutants when released into the pool bygrazing animals because they pare hazardous to aquatic life such assmall fish due to blockage of air pathways into the water (MichiganSea Grant, 2016).

Furthermore, airborne littering also contributesto the lake’s pollution. Regardless of the means of entry into thesea, the pollutants, as well as the overall effects of pollution, arestill the same. The society considers the rain as well as the snow tobe pure. However, this is a myth since the air contains impurities.Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial gases pollute the airthereby contaminating the rainwater and snow. The precipitation alsocomes with metals such as lead entrapped by the water as it makes itsway into the earth’s surface. After mixing with the metals andchemicals in the atmosphere, the water falls directly into the seawhereas the portion that precipitates on the land drains into thelake (Mcser, 2016).

The dominance of invasive species in thisreservoir has also resulted in its pollution. Invasive Plants, aswell as animals, have led to a change in the composition of thelake’s chemical properties. For instance, algae prevent the entryof the rays of the sun into the bottom of the lake where the beamssupport the growth of plankton, which is food for small fish. Hence,the small fish end up perishing. Additionally, vectors such as thePacific rat significantly reduce the population of small animals andbirds that constitute the lake’s ecosystem.

To sum up, in the past few years, there has been asignificant change in the lake’s colour. The pool has experiencedalgae blooms in huge volumes leading to predicaments of poornavigation in the water body. The Algae has come in various typessuch as filamentous, planktonic and the macrophytic algae.Nevertheless, planktonic and macrophytic algae are not harmful, asthey do not emerge at the surface of the lake, unlike the filamentoustype. The emergence of the seaweed onto the surface has madenavigation in the pool almost impossible.

However, to address the predicaments of pollutionfaced by the lake and its suburbs, the occupants of the area shouldcollaborate and devise ways of handling the litter in the town. It isalso important to introduce litter bins, the collection of dumpedlitter, street sweeping and the recycling of wastes, to help inmanaging the litter in the city. Consequently, the authorities shouldlay out rules and policies to handle littering. Besides, those foundlittering the streets as well as the outskirts of the town should bepenalized (Common Lake &amp Pond Problems, 2016)

Likewise, the construction of gabions in areaswith high rates of erosion will help to control the amount ofsediments flowing into the lake. Over and above that, capping couldbe used to cover the deposited sediments. This cap should have athickness of 30 to 40 cm to prevent the mixing of the pollutedsediments with the introduced non-polluted capping (KumarReddy &amp Lee, 2012).

In addition, the smart growth of towns withenhanced drainage systems and proper waste disposal counters theproblems associated with urban sprawl. Manageable growth restrictshow the owners use their land. The authorities shouldimpose policiesthat will regulatethe construction of houses. Rules levied caninclude the requirement to have sidewalks in the residential areas.This amendment ensures the maintenance of a safe distance with theshores of the lake while constructing houses.

Over and above that, public education on the bestagricultural practices could help minimise pollution brought about bythe use of harmful agricultural methods and chemicals. The farmersare educated on the best chemicals to use as well as tillingpractices that will help minimise the drainage of the farm chemicalsto the water body (Pollution of Lakes and Streams, 2016).Inaddition, planting of grass contributes to trapping runoff watercontaining harmful fertilisers and herbicides.

In reserve, the pollution that results fromairborne pollution is best controlled through the creation of acts toregulate the setup of industries near the lake (Mcser, 2016).The government should designate an industrial area far from thesuburbs of the lake where all the air-polluting industries are to besituated. Here, the acidity of the atmosphere surrounding the lake isreduced and so is pollution. Supernumerary, the introduction ofunleaded fuel could help control the amount of lead emitted into theair.

Beyond controlling air pollution, a keen interestshould be given to the dominance of invasive species. The primaryaction is to establish effective techniques to counter their initialintroduction into the lake. Furthermore, the body given the mandateto oversee pollution of the lake should devise methods to monitoremerging infestations. In the rear, swift action should be taken todo away with the newly discovered invaders.

To sum up, there are various ways to deal withalgae. Mechanical options can be adopted to remove the blooms by theuse of rakes and seines. That said, biological control methods alsoplay a vital part in the control. Through the introduction of typicalfish as well as insects into the ecosystem, one can control the rateof algae blooms in the sea.

Reference List

Pollution of Lakes and Streams – river, sea, freshwater, effects,temperature, percentage, largest, types, system, plants, source,oxygen, human. (2016). Waterencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 9July 2016, fromhttp://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Oc-Po/Pollution-of-Lakes-and-Streams.html

.Kumar Reddy, D. &amp Lee, S. (2012).Water Pollution and Treatment Technologies. J Environ AnalToxicol, 02(05).http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0525.1000e103

Mcser.org.(2016). Retrieved 9 July 2016, fromhttp://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/download/1760/1764

Michigan Sea Grant. (2016). Michigan Sea Grant.Retrieved 9 July 2016, fromhttp://seagrant.research.umich.edu/downloads/research/journals/09-304