Giancolabases his research on the aspect of intrinsic motivation in humanresource management. It is clear that the power of intrinsicmotivation has been underestimated and human resource managers haveoveremphasized on the aspect of external motivation in the quest ofsustaining and motivating their employees(Giancola, 2014).Several schools and authors have come up with pieces of works thathave openly evaluated the use of extrinsic motivators whileneglecting the intrinsic motivators. Alfie Kohn, Daniel Pink, andEdward Deci bring out clearly the absence of intrinsic motivators inorganizations and the need to adopt them. They go ahead to condemnthe employment of extrinsic motivators as the major reason behind theextinction of inherent motivation among persons. Though scholars fromthe human resource field have opposed such literature, they do notoffer concrete evidence to defend their arguments.
Intrinsicmotivation comes from within the employee, unlike extrinsicmotivation which comes from outside forces. For instance, doctors areintrinsically motivated to work by the satisfaction of getting rid ofa patient`s suffering. The same doctor can be extrinsically motivatedby outside forces like remuneration, good salaries, allowances, andhousing.
Thereare several theories that have tried to bring out the components ofintrinsic motivation. One of the theories is the Herzberg’s theoryof motivation. Put forward by Fredrick Herzberg, the theoryrecommends that for a job to fully motivate the employee it must takecare of the intrinsic motivators which touch on opportunities,responsibilities, and achievements. These characteristics range fromjob variety, identification of tasks, the importance given to eachtask, independence of each employee and the response an individualgets from whatever he has done (Giancola,2014).The second theory is the self-determination theory which touches onthe inborn traits of a human person. It points out some of thischaracteristics can be satisfied at organizational settingsindependence, relativity and the trait of being competent. The theoryfurther asserts that every employee has innate traits that alwayspush him to be competent when dealing with the environment.
Giancola(2014) goes on to argue that these theories have created a platformon which research is carried surveys have been carried out to findthe importance of intrinsic rewards. The surveys, which were carriedout by six established firms, based their research on employmotivation and engagement of employees. From the surveys, it wasclear that these two aspects had close relations. The surveys alsofound out that provision of challenging tasks, giving room indecision making, provision of total responsibilities, giving feedbackand job autonomy played a critical role in the motivation ofemployees. SHRM is an organization that sponsors surveys annuallytouching on job satisfaction and the intrinsic rewards. From thesurveys, like in 2012, intrinsic motivators were the top factor inthe employee`s rating. The surveys also try to rank the levels ofsatisfaction of the intrinsic motivators within selectedorganizations. It was found out that majority of the employees weredissatisfied with conditions which laid the foundation to intrinsicmotivation. SHRM also carried surveys among Human Resource officersto gauge their opinion about job satisfaction. The study found outthat there was a wide difference between employees and the HRofficers as they did not value the role of intrinsic factors in jobsatisfaction the same way their employees did. In 2010, the resultsshowed that the top underestimated factors among HR managers wereintrinsic rewards. Though there are challenges faced in creating anenvironment to nurture intrinsic motivation, the trend currently ispromising as they are gradually being adopted. He goes on to pointout why these factors are not addressed by the HR officers like notbeing aware of the importance, the impracticability of somestrategies, costs, lack of platforms to research on or evenorganization’s to emulate among others. Giancola (2014) concludesby offering final thoughts like redesigning of the organization toaddress intrinsic rewards.
Fromthe work, it is clear that HR managers are finding it a challenge toincorporate intrinsic rewards and even create an environment thatwill nurture intrinsic motivation among its employees. They haveargued that most of such strategies are impractical, costly and asource of conflicts in an organization. However, managers can usesome of the factors to increase productivity. This approach may beeffective in an organization which does not have sufficient fundsthat may act as external motivators among its staff members.
Oneof the ways in which the approach can be applied is by HR exposingthe staff members to a variety of activities. This aspect will enablethe staff members to acquire a number of varied skills and also aplatform to realize his unexploited talents and abilities. Thecompany can do this by establishing a rotation program in the companyin which individuals get a feel of what happens in each section. Theemployees will not only be flexible but also get motivated.
Identificationof tasks is also another strategy. Employees get motivated when theywork totally on a task rather than working on a section of it. Theystrive to begin on something that they can see the outcome. Inaddition, they want to see their significance in the tasks they carryout within the organization. Therefore, the HR department shouldcreate mechanisms that bring out the importance of having a certainemployee like provision of positive feedback.
HRmanagers should also empower the employees to make decisions and comeup with innovations. Independence of employees is a key intrinsicmotivator.
Giancola,F. L. (2014). Should HR Professionals Devote More Time to IntrinsicRewards? Compensation& Benefits Review, 46(1),25 –31 SAGE Publications.